Farm Society Sought Utopia in 1844; Lasted Four Years

Article source, Nancy Benton. Transcribed by me.

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Farm Society Sought Utopia in 1844; Lasted Four Years

Alphadelphians Attracted Much Attention Through Their Colony Founded in Comstock Township

Kalamazoo Gazette, October 18 1925

The theory of holding property in common through the operation of a domestic and industrial domain, was tried out in Kalamazoo county following organization of the Alphadelphia Association at Clark’s lake in Jackson county on Dec. 14, 1843. It crumbled after four years.

Fifty-six men held a three-day session at that time and adjourned to meet at Bellevue in Eaton county on Jan. 3, 1844 when reports of committees on location of the proposed domain were to be received. At this last meeting the southeast quarter of the township of Comstock in this county was decided upon.


The convention then adopted its constitution which was signed by 51 members, nearly all the heads of families, and thrifty farmers, mechanics, and manufacturers. This number might easily have doubled but it was considered wise to limit the membership. Dr. H. R. Schetterly, Ann Arbor; A. Darrow, Bellevue, vice president; E. S. Camp, Marshall, secretary; John Curtis, Jackson, treasurer.

Pioneers of this section were getting the land well cleared and raining good crops when the Alphadelphian committee appeared among them on Dec. 23, 1843. Dr. H. R. Schetterly was the controlling spirit. He was a German–a small, slender man with dark hair and eyes. He won his way into the confidence of the Comstock pioneers. The settlers were interested in the new method of living that he pictured and many were anxious to join the association. Among the county residents who joined the movement were Lyman Tubbs, Amos Wilson, E. M. Clapp, Harvey Keith, David Ford, Joseph Flanders, Dr. Ezra Stetson, William Earl, Roswell Ransom, James Noyes, Hannibal Taylor, C. L. Keith, P. H. Whitford and scores of others.


Their property, though not held in common, caused no envy and created no distinctions. They helped each other not only at raisings, but at clearing off their lands, husking corn and through all their troubles and over all difficulties. Thus when Dr. Schetterly came to the community he found them already “Alphadelphian” (last line article appears to be snipped).

Organization was soon perfected. The Comstock members lived in their own houses and those who came from other points were sheltered in such homes as they could get until a long shanty was built on the north side of the river which was occupied as a general “tabernacle” by the new members until the mansion was erected in the fall of 1844. This building was originally 26 by 200 feet and two stories high.

The first school was taught by James Allen Knight in a log building on the south side of the river. The pupils crossed the river by boat. Philander H. Bowman of Jackson was the physician; James Hoxle, Bellevue, the leading carpenter; Leonard Liscomb was the tailor; G. O. Ball and John Wetherbee, shoemaker. The colony’s paper was called the “Alphadelphian Tocsin,” and was edited by H. R. Shetterly and Rev. Richard Thornton. The latter also published at Comstock “The Primitive Expounder,” which he had established at Ann Arbor. This was a staunch Universalist journal.

Most of the leaders of the movement were universalists and the preaching at Alphadelphia was largely by ministers of that denomination. They included Revs. Thornton, J. Billings and E. Wheeler. They also had sermons by other ministers and ‘relgious and political opinions of members were unmolested.”

The organization having been thoroughly effected, the Alphadelphians were ready to drive their teams into the field and turn the first furrow. Each of the busy community was to work his special vocation, till all the professions, trades, callings, talent, skill and labor of the association that could be made available was turned into its proper field of usefulness. This was the object of the domain. But it failed to succeed and crumbled after a trial of four years.


The census of May 1845, showed 188 male and females on the domain which with non-resident members, probably made a total of 300. Value of the association’s real estate as appraised March 9, 1846 was $43,879. A large number had put their farms into the association: others put in various kinds of property; James Noyes put in his sawmill.

It is said that a majority of the members were disinclined to work, each feeling that they had joined an organization where co-operative effort entitled them to an existence of comparative ease. From the first entry on the association’s books, July 23, 1843 until the last on April 30, 1848, the presidents were Anson Delamatter, Benjamin Wright, Harvey Keith, Lyman Tubbs and James Noyes.

The last family on the domain was that of Hannibal A. Taylor. When Kalamazoo county purchased the property in the spring of 1848, Mr. Taylor delivered it to the purchasers.

Dr. Schetterly, the guiding genius of the association, still had faith in this idea and went to an institution of a similar character in Lagrange. Ind. called the Phalanx. From LaGrange he went to another society in Wisconsin and from Wisconsin he came back to Michigan to take charge of the government (… rest of article snipped).



[Text: Edgar Allan Poe, “The Alphadelphia Tocsin,” from The Weekly Mirror (New York), January 18, 1845, p. 227.]

THE ALPHADELPHIA TOCSIN. — (Phbus, what a name, to fill the sounding trump of future fame!) — is the title of a new journal published at Alphadelphia, Michigan, and “devoted to the interests of the laboring classes;” by which we presume are intended the classes who have to pronounce every morning the great appellation of the paper itself. Such a work should not want editors, and accordingly we are informed that it has eight. What on earth is the meaning of Alphadelphia? — is the “Alphadelphia Tocsin” the Tocsin of the city of double A’s? — if so, the idea is too easily slipped into A double S.

Alphadelphia Association, a 1958 Paper by Catherine Livingston

The below history of the Alphadelphia Association by Catherine Livingston is from 1958. Thank you to Nancy Benton for supplying the paper, which I have transcribed.

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I wish to express my appreciation for the privilege of reading these interesting and valuable documents which were loaned to me through the generosity of Mrs. F. J. Buckley of Kalamazoo. Mrs. Buckley purchased this material from Ethan Keith and Hannah Towne (nee Keith) who deserve much credit for preserving it all these years.

I obtained the material for this paper from the Day Book, Stock Book, Journal, Ledger and Journal of the Alphadelphia Association. Much information was obtained from reports of committees and correspondence between officials of the Association and interested persons.


In southeastern Michigan in the early 1840’s, a great deal of interest in the socialistic teachings of Fourier was stimulated by Dr. H. R. Schetterly, a resident of Ann Arbor. In consequence a convention was held December 14, 1843 at the school house at the head of Clark’s Lake, Columbia, Jackson County. Fifty-six persons from the counties of Oakland, Wayne, Washtenaw, Conescoe, Jackson, Eaton, Calhoun and Kalamazoo assembled. After a three day session lasting from morning to midnight a skeleton constitution was adopted and a committee was selected to choose a site for a domain.(1)

The committee first visited Union City on December 22, 1843 and reported ample water power from the Coldwater River, beautiful scenery and productive soil. They found they would have to buy much of the land from private individuals at high price. Furthermore they “found that a very unfavorable prejudice existed here against the association, because one had invested his farm in the La Grange Association and could not immediately get it out again, nor get the value of it in money.” (2)

The committee next visited Kalamazoo County and a very enthusiastic report was sent from Galesburg December 27, 1843. The advantages of this location are described by the following report (abridged).

“Your committee arrived here on Saturday, the 23 ult., and rejoice to say that an ardour now exists amount the people in this place for entering into Association which never can be cooled under their

(1) Taken from the Primitive Expounder of Jan. 5, 1844

(2) From the report of the committee (Dr. H. R. Schetterly, John Curtis and Wm. Grant) to the Fourier Convention to be held at Bellvue Jan. 3, 1843


wishes shall have been realized.

The Kalamazoo River is a large and beautiful stream, nine rods wide and five feet deep in the middle, flowing at the rate of about four miles per hour, and with eight feet fall which can be obtained by digging a race. This will propel a hundred run of millstones in the dryest season.

The mansion and manufactories will stand on a beautiful plain, always dry, from fifty to sixty rods wide, being skirted on the south by a range of hillocks about twenty feet and running parallel with the river. The plain above the hillocks extends for miles, being covered with the most thrifty timber your committee ever beheld, consisting of Whitewood, ash, oak, beech, elm and maple. The hard maple being two to three and a half feet in diameter and some of the black walnut are fourteen feet in diameter.

There is a large spring of purest water about a half a mile distant from the place where our mansion will stand, furnishing water sufficient for drinking and culinary purposes, in all our manufactories and the mansion and supplying, besides, our daity with fresh water.

Cobblestones are found in sufficient quantity for foundations and building a dam, easily accessible. Beds of clay and sand exist where excellent brick have been made. There are indications of iron ore on the domain and in its vicinity but no investigation has been made. In fact everything that an association can want is found here except gold beds, sandstone and limestone. Nature seems to have destined this precise spot for such an association as we are about to form. Your committee feel that they are unable adequately to describe the advantages of this location.”


After looking over the amount of water power at Bellevue, the committee decided it was insufficient for the needs of the Association. When these reports were laid before the Convention, Galesburg was the site chosen for the domain.

The constitution was then perfected and adopted, signed by fifty-one members, nearly all fathers of families, respectable and thrifty farmers, mechanics and manufacturers. The officers of the Convention gave notice the Association “will open books to receive subscriptions for membership and stock on the first Monday of February next…during six days.” (3)

The first meeting on the domain was March 21, 1844 at the house of Harvey Keith. Anson De Lamatter was chosen president and Henry H. Rending was chosen secretary. The constitution provided the business of the Association shall be the prosecution of Agriculture, Manufactures, the Mechanic Arts, Commerce, Education, the Arts and Sciences and Domestic Industry, in all their branches.” (4) It also provided, “the Lands, Buildings, Flocks, Herds, Machinery and Implement of every kind shall be represented by stock and divided into shares.” (5) The officers and directors worked tirelessly to carry out these provisions and further the interests of the Association.

From the first the controlling spirit was Dr. Schetterly. He was a small, dark, slender man with dark hair, eyes and complexion. He was very talented as a speaker and soon won his way into the hearts and homes of the old pioneers of Comstock. He pictured the life of healthfulness and enjoyment, of unselfishness, of Spartan fidelity and frugality

(3) From the Primitive Expounder of Jan. 5 1844

(4) From the Constitution of the Alphadelphia Association

(5) Same as above.


that could be had upon accepting the views of Charles Fourier. If it seems difficult to understand how he could influence these old settlers noted for their practical hard sense and shrewd discernment of men and things, it must be remembered their pioneers surroundings fostered this very feeling of brotherhood he advocated. They were already helping one another at raisings, at clearing land, husking corn. They lived as harmonious and happy as if they were members of one family; so when Schetterly came among them, his work was easy. (6) Among the names found on the membership roll are these from this vicinity: Byran Tubbs, Roswell Ransom, E. M. Clapp, Joseph Flanders, Harvey Keith, Wm. Earl and Dr. Ezra Stetson.

The minutes of the early meetings of the Board of Directors is filled with reports of committees on membership and inventories of personal property and appraisals of (unintelligible) (7). By May 2, 1844 the Board takes this report: “Certificates of stock have been issued for 2412 acres amounting to $26,225. We have 70,000 feet of lumber on hand and a sawmill operating day and night. Thirty cows, twelve horse teams, nine yoke of oxen, forty-eight hogs and one hundred and eleven sheep are on the domain. We have nine wagons, ten ploughs. Provisions: twenty-three barrels of pork, thirty-three barrels of flour, 250 pounds of lard, 260 bushels of potatoes and twenty-three tons of hay.” (8)

(6) From an article by (unintelligible) Van Buren in Mich. Pioneer Co.. V. 5

(7) I have examined descriptions in longhand of land turned over to the Assoc. All abstracts covering this property contain a “Trust Deed” between members of the Assoc. and Lyman Tubbs and Harvey Keith who became legal trustees because the Assoc. failed to get a charter.

(8) Report of Board of Directors of A.A. May 2, 1844


While the Directors were gathering people and property into the fold, Schetterly was in Detroit at the state capital attempting to get a charter. In a letter to Harvey Keith and Lyman Tubbs, he said:

“To you it is known I am here a lobby member in behalf of our dear Association. The petitions and memorial were referred to the committee of the house of incorporations and the members are ready to report in our favor…The committee will draft the Act before Monday and then comes the tug of war.”

In spite of his efforts the charter was never granted so Lyman Tubbs and Harvey Keith became legal trustees of the Association, with power to transact business of the Association. The real estate and personal property was appraised by competent judges and given a value of fifty dollars a share. Investments in the Association varied from four thousand dollars down to twenty dollars.

The constitution provided, “After an amount sufficient to pay the Taxes, Insurance and repairs shall have been deducted from the total income of the Association, one-fourth of the remainder shall be paid to the stockholders and three-fourths to the laborers, annually.” The first year’s work earned a total profit of $6,248.41. This gave $5.68 to the stockholders and $.388 per day to the laborers. Boarding per week came to $.64 and 1/6 per week.

The first year much of the work consisted of farming and building the mansion. This building, twenty feet wide by two hundred feet long and two stories high stood on the present site of the county farm buildings a mile west of Galesburg. All details of work was voted on in Director’s meeting. (9) The laborers were divided into groups according to their pre-

(9) Taken from the day book June 11, 1844, p. 553 (?) Voted, that teamsters of the Assoc. shall not be permitted to change or mismatch any team placed in their hands without the written consent of the superintendent of the farming interest. Also voted, that Mr. Whitcomb be requested to select men to work out the road tax and to invite the Pathmaster to lay out work on the bridge sufficient to repair the railing.


fressions, each having a chairman who recorded the number of hours spent on any task. It was his duty to organize the labor of old men, boys and women with that of an able-bodied man on the same job. (10) The piece work system was adopted upon recommendation of George Eskico (?), a member of the state legislature who was interested in the “defending of the poor and labouring men.” He stated the uncertainty of the quantity of work to be done by each person should be avoided and the sooner a piece work system was adopted the better. He opinioned, “Compliments on work will produce more and better work, also.”

Samuel Denton, another member of the legislature wrote from Ann Arbor, suggesting a group of men work on the railroad which Dr. Schetterly had been promised would locate not more than one-quarter mile from the mansion. (11) Many kinds of work occupied the members. On May 29, 1844 the Board of Directors authorized the secretary to write to Nash Norton of Adrian to see whether he will come to the Domain immediately and go to making brick. Mrs. John Porter of Ann Arbor had experience and was to direct the women in the straw bonnet-making business. (12) Charles Cridlander of Hickory Grove wished to join the association and bring 5000 to 8000 grafts of apple trees as his contribution. A silk manufactory was suggested as a means of gainfully employing the women and children. The management of the interior of the mansion and the flower gardens was superintended by a council of ladies. The day book is filled with items that tell of the varied tasks performed.

(10) See Appendix for interesting hourly ratio of different departments

(11) From Day Book of May 3, 1844, Voted, that a team be sent to Jackson to carry Messers Schetterly, Rending and Mitchell to the railroad at Jackson.

(12) A letter from John Porter gives directions for preparing the straw of winter rye, using only two or three middle joints. It took fifteen hours to make a hat.


The members of the Association enjoyed religious freedom. Rooms were provided for each denomination to conduct services. Further the constitution provided a lot was to be set aside for each denomination when there were enough members to justify the building of a church.

The first school was taught by James Allen Knight on the south side of the river. (13) The children crossed by boat each day. Mr. Avery, the Shaker (?), taught on the north side. The support of free schools was provided for in the constitution, a certain per cent of the dividends making up an educational fund. (14)

Dr. Schetterly worked zealously to spread his views on law reform through (?) the servitude of the laboring class. To this end he planned to set up and pring a newspaper, the “Alphadelphia Tocsin”. After much delay in obtaining a printing press (15), the work was started with Dr. Schetterly and Rev. Richard Thornton as editors. The subscription list was built up by writing postmasters of many towns for possible subscribers. (16) The last issue of the “Tocsin” was published Nov. 12, 1846. Then R. Thornton bought the subscription list for seven dollars to be paid in printing. “The Primitive Expounder” was published at Alphadelphia for a time, also. (17) These papers were given to all members of the state legislature to influence their votes.

(13) From report of committee on school June 3, 1844. Resolved, that this Association build a schoolhouse on the south side of the river on the Tubbs place, said house to be built of boards, twenty feet square, and commence school as soon as house can possibly be built.

(14) See the Constitution in the Appendix. Article III, Sec. 4,5,6,7.

(15) Schetterly, in letter to Harvey Keith, says they can have a printing press from Buffalo for nine months credit by giving the Detroit Free Press as reference. Instructs the secretary to ask Harmon of the Free Press to write Isaac R. Crary (?) of Marshall as to B. Wright’s (agent for Assoc.) responsibility.

(16) Isaiah Butler, Auburn, Mich. ordered one dozen “Tocsin” to notify friends of his daughter’s death.

(17) For every hour’s labor “The Expounder” earns the Assoc. ten cents. From a report on “Expounder” by R. Thornton.


But the affairs of the Association were not running as smoothly as might appear on the surface. James Billings wrote from Ann Arbor, “I fear things are not managed right and honorably at the domain”. Calvin White writes, “the idea around Martin is that the Association was formed for aristocratical and dishonest purposes, and some supposed it to be an infidel get-up and some a universalist concern”. There was much bickering and distrust among certain members. The Council of Arbitration had many trials of theft and dishonesty to settle. A man who got the use of two horses and a carriage for one day by false pretenses was fined thirty-six hours worth of labor. Another fine of seventy-nine hours was imposed by the Council for spreading a false report about a family. Some were accused of taking wheat and tools belonging to the Association for their own use. (18)

Quarrels were frequent and many had withdrawn from the Association by the time the last entry was posted in the day book April 30, 1848. (19) People whose ancestors were members feel the failure was due to poor management and the weakness of human nature. The industrious and conscientious objected to supporting the indolent and greedy.

There are minutes of a meeting held August 1, 1848 for the purpose of disposing of the deeds of the members in attendance. Still later, August 11, 1857, a few members met for the purpose of disposing of the books of the Association as the secretary was moving to Kansas. Between these two dates there is no clue to any activity of the Association. C. L. Keith, H. A. Taylor, C. R. Cridland and D. Taylor attended the last meeting and witnessed this remark, “And thus ended the Alphadelphia Association”.

(18) Dr. Schetterly was convicted of appropriating goods to the amount of two hundred dollars. This item was found in the Day Book: Dr. Schetterly ran away this day, Sunday, June 21, 1846


Report of the committee to organize and equalize Labor

Assuming the farming business as a standard of comparison and eight hours to be a days work, without fixing any definite price per day, we would propose the following inverse rates by which the dividend shall be made on the different departments of labor.

Male Labor Female Labor
Farming 8 Cooking 12
Teaming 10 Housework 12
Carpentry 6 Tailoring 10
Joinery 6 Dressmaking 12
Blacksmithing 6 Common sewing 16
Shoemaking 8 Dairy Work 12
Masonry 6 Washing 8
Gardening 8 Ironing 10
Chopping 7 Nursing 12
Wagon Making 6 Teaching 10
Writing, Clerk 8 Straw-work 16
Physician 8 Spinning 16
Agents 8 Weaving 10
Teaching 6
Sewing 7

We have proposed the above work on the supposition of full and skillful work. In the case of boys and girls and all others not willing or able to do full and skillful work, we recommend the leader of the group to estimate the value of their work and set down hours accordingly.

In order to realize the advantages to be derived from economy, there should be a division of labor.

Let the washing and ironing be all done at one place…If the clothes are all marked and were all washed in one place with the aid of steam and labor-saving machinery, a great economy of time and labor would be realized.

Household labor might also be divided to good advantage, which would save the liability of disputes and heartburnings (?) because some may be


thought to be willing to shirk and not do their part.

Groups of spinners should be under the direction of a discreet and skillful leader and all should work in one place until the work is done.

In the ratio set down for the physician we propose to allow him two hours each day to be devoted to professional studies in order the better to prepare him for the practice of medicine in a skillful manner.


Thomas Wheeler
Mr. Ford (absent)



Transcriber’s note: This is all very difficult to read

Box I:
Folder 1 – 1 ms. copy of constitution;
1 printed copy of constitution
1 fragment of constitution;
Folder 2 – Article of Agreement, 6 items
Folders 3-4-5-6 – Correspondence, (?) 1843 to Dec. 1845, 83 items
Folder 7 – Report, Dec. 27, 1843 of the Committee sent out to select a site for the Association
Folder 8 – Roll of original members, March 1844
Folder 9 – Copy of census, May 1844
Folder 10 – Reports of the General Council, 1845 and 1846
Folder 11 – Reports of Committees, 1843-1844, 17 items
Folder 12 – Council of Arbitrarion Report, 1844
Folder 13 – Council of Arbitrarion Reports, 1845-1846, 11 items
Folder 14 – Proposals for membership, general meeting, 1844, 31 items
Folder 15 – Proposals for membership, undated, 2 items
Folder 16 – Agreements to leave, 1845-1847, 10 items
Folder 17 – Appraisals of property of members on joining, 10 items
Folder 18 – Supplementary agreements between members and association on certain items of property, 18 items

Box II:
Folder 1 – Labor record books of individuals’ services;
1 Blacksmith shop record book;
W. A. Taylor Labor Book;
Labor records of association members, May 1845 to June 2?, 1845;
Index of time book;
Labor records of association, April 7, 1844 (? to May 8, 1845 (?);
Roll of female laborers, undated
Folder 2 – Papers on building of mansion, 3 items
Folder 3 – Tocsin accounts, 4 items
Folder 4 – Tocsin subscription list
Folder 5 – Record of stock holdings, 4 items
Folder2 6-7-8-9 – Stock certificates of the Alphadelphia Association, 167 items
Folder 10 – Orders on the council to pay, 1844, 1845, and undated, 17 items
Folder 11 – Receipts, 1844-46 and undated, 23 items
Folder 12 – Treasurer’s Report, March 14, 1846
Folder 13-14-15 – Bills allowed, 1844-1846, 178 items
Folder 16 – Miscellaneous accounts, 16 items
Folder 17 – Miscellaneous papers including minutes of final adjournment May 11, 1857, 6 items



Additional items:

Primitive Expounder, V. ? #5 and #23

Primitive Expounder, extra, Jan 5 1844, containing constitution of Alphadelphia Association

6 bound volumes:
Account Book, 1844-1845, of individual members’ accounts with the association
Day Book, July 24, 1844-April 30, 1848
Labor Records of members of Alphadelphia Association, 1844-1845
Account book, July 23, 1844-Mary 2, 1848
List of stock certificates and fractional certificates and transactions thereof, 1844-1845
Minutes of the Director’s meetings, March 21, 1844-Aug 1, 1844 (plus some accounts and appraisals of property)

April 8, 1959



Report of Committee sent out by (?) to examine and select a domain for the Association

Original minutes of the first annual meeting of Alphadelphia Association

May 2, 1844 Report of the Board of Directors

May 3, 1844 Report of committee on printing press

May 4, 1844 Address of the officers to members and stockholders

May 9, 1844 Interpretation of Constitution by Elron S. Camp

June 3, 1844 Report of committee on business with E. A. Taylor

June 3, 1844 Report of committee on school

June 21, 1844 Report of Welland (?) W. Noyes to Board of Directors

June 21, 1844 Report of C. H. Noyes to Board of Directors

June 27, 1844 Report of E. S. Camp Live stock

July 10, 1844 Report of general agent on business with Sawyer & Hodgeman

July 12, 1844 Report of general agent on business at Allegan

May 30, 1844 Report of general agent on trip to Allegan County

May 30, 1844 Report of engineer on north side

May 30, 1844 Report of engineer on south side

May 30, 1844 Report of committee on cemetery

May 30, 1844 Tabular proposals for membership & stock to Alphadelphia Assoc.

May 30, 1844 Memorandum of appraisal of property on the domain of the Assoc.

May 30, 1844 Report of committee to organize and equalize labor

M.. ? 1845 Amos Wilson’s contract for saw mill

M.. ? 1845 H. R. Schettery’s estimate of cost of digging a (unintelligible) on south side

May 7, 1844 J. Billings’ proposal for an agency for the “Tocsin”

Sept. 1844 Whitford’s report re Ten (unintelligible) baskets

Nov. 1844 Article of agreement to withdraw of requested

Nov. 1844 C. W. Vining’s report of produce used by J. Flanders & L. Tubbs

July 13, 1844 Report of committee on damage to Flanders’ house

1845 Report on printing Expounder by Thornton



Feb. 1845 “Evils of Juris prudence” from D. P. Putter, Dundee to Editor of Tocsin

Dec. 1844 “Moved to Schoolcraft” from Joseph F. Beck, Richland to Editor of Tocsin

Oct. 1845 “Discontinue subscription” from C. H. Persons, Iosco to Editor of Tocsin

Oct. 1845 “Subscription” from Chauncey Adams, Brighton, IN to Editor of Tocsin

Sept. 1845 “Subscription” from John J. Merrill, Springfield, Oakland Co. to J. A. Knight, Galesburg

Mar. 1845 “Delay in Publishing” from D. H. Rowland, Northville to Dr. Schetterly

Mar. 1845 “Purchase of Nash farm” from G. D. Hill, Ann Arbor to Dr. Schetterly

April “Mortgage” from David Reynolds, Aurora, IL to J. W. Cothern, Galesburg

Dec. 1844 “Law reform” from Samuel Denton, Ann Arbor to Schetterly, Galesburg

Nov. 1845 “Subscription” from L. Weed, Auburn to Editor, Tocsin

Dec. 1845 “Doctrine of reform” from S. B. Hooker, Wayland to Editor, Tocsin

Nov. 1845 “Join Assoc”.” from Isaiah Butler, Auburn to J. A. Knight, Galesburg

Oct.? 1845 “Subscriptions” from Leonard Weed, Auburn to Editor, Tocsin

May “Delay in receiving paper” from J. C. Richmond, Farm River to Editor, Tocsin

Aug. 1844 “Publish manuscript” from Samuel Denton, Ann Arbor to Schetterly

Feb. “Subscriptions” from N. J. Daniells, West Bloomfield to Publisher of Tocsin

May “Subscriptions” from L. Smith, Litchfield to Publisher of Tocsin

Feb. 1845 “Ideals of Assoc.” from Abrahm Laing, Raisin to Publisher of Tocsin

Mar. 1845 “Club of subscriptions” from Abiel Silver, Edwardsburg to Publisher of Tocsin

Jan. 1844 “Charter” from Dr. Schatterly, Ann Arbor to Harvey Keith, Galesburg

Feb. 1845 “Subscription” from David R. Noyes, Schoolcraft to R. T. Roice, Galesburg

July 1845 “Join Assoc.” from John J. Merrill, Springfield to J. A. Knight, Galesburg

Jan. 1845 “House rent” from H. A. Moore, Ann Arbor to Schetterly, Galesburg

Mar. 1845 “Penna. property” from Chas. C. Taylor, Ann Arbor to Schetterly

Oct. 1844 “Illness” from Wm. Grant, Springarbor to Schetterly

Nov. 1844 “Printing press” from P. Tabor, Rollin to Schetterly

Oct. 1844 “Mich. Senate” from Samuel Denton, Ann Arbor to Schetterly

June 1845 “Charter” from George Eckles, Detroit to Schetterly



Jan. 1845 Benjiman Wright, Lumber and hardware

April 1844 John Waite, Miscellaneous

April 1845 P. N. Bowman, Physician services

Feb. 1845 Daniel S. Chase, water ?

June 1845 S. P. Jewett Dry goods

June 1845 Wm. S. Nead (?) Dry goods and hardware

June 1845 Testus Hall, Hardware

Jan. 1845 Richard McOmber, Work done

Nov. 1844 Chas. R. Cridland, Fruit trees

April 1845 Spencer Mitchell, Household supplies

April 1845 H. P. Pierce, Household goods taken away

Sept. 1844 Samuel Chadwick,Repairing house in Ann Arbor

Sept. 1844 Luke Keith, Lumber

1845 W. W. Noyes, Sawmill

Jan. 1845 Horace Moore, Taxes ($4.35) on house in Ann Arbor

Jan. 1845 I. Ladington (?), Paper for printing

Aug. 1844 Elias Lew, Household supplies

Aug. 1844 H. R. Schetterly, Furniture from H. (?) Clapp

April 1845 W. S. Mead (?), Goods bought at Ann Arbor

July 1844 R. Thornton, Printing

Feb. 1846 Wm. Wallace, Carding

May 1845 Homer Stickney, Freight from Marshall

July 1845 R. Ransom, Goods

Dec. 1844 C. A. Lockhart, Shoeing

Feb. 1845 C. A. Lockhart, Repairing machinery

Oct. 1845 Walbridge, Lumber

Aug. 1845 Denison & Denison, Goods

Sept. 1844 Jacob Miller, Goods

June 1844 Platt Gilbert, Goods


Nov. 1844 S. Percival, Cloth for coat

Oct. 1844 S. Percival, Comstock, Trade dry goods for wheat

Oct. 1844 Chester Buckley, B. Creek, Trade wheat for lamp oil

Oct. 1844 C. W. Vining, Cattle and household goods

Oct. 1844 Seth Wheelock, Tools

April 1846 Caleb Damer, Lumber

Mar. 1845 David Ford, Sawing

April 1844, Gray & Burgess, Dry goods

June 1844 Henry H. Reading, Account of Labor and Goods

Sept. 1844 Tom Flanders, Baskets

Sept. 1844 Joseph Flanders, Grain and lumber

1845 Assoc., postage bill

July 1844 Harvey Keith, Bill of lumber

Nov. 1844 Assoc., Freight on printing press

Sept. 1844 P. H. Whitford, Sale of Flanders’ baskets


H. Becker
Andrew J. Ido
J. W. Cothern
W. S. Kend?
P. H. Whitford
Salmon King
Harvey Keith, Twp. Treas.
H. A. Moore
C. W. Vining
Zenas Nash
Alex Buell
L. Van Dewalker
James N. Parson, Sec. Ins. Co.
G. A. Lockhart
Jewell & Rockwell, Battle Creek
Eli Clinton
Henry Ralph, Twp. Treas. Charleston
Ralph Tuttle, Treas. Comstock
Caleb Kirby


H. G. Pierce
Festus Hall
W. W. Noyes
Leonard Lascomb
James Hozzie
H. B. Hall
F. C. Brooks


Cancelled Certificates

Henry D. Hall
Alfreda Keith
Erastus Weeks
C. W. Vining
Rebecca Hall
Charles Bradford
James Noyes
John Curtis
James Hoxsie
Harvey Keith
F. C. Brooks
Harrison G. Pierce
John A. Knight
Richard McOmber
Charles Bradford
George Owrall (?)
Samuel Hinkle
Wm. Grant
Joseph Patch
N. K. Matthews
Corydan(?) E. Sawyer
Thomas Wheeler
J. T. White
Peter H. Whitford
John Rogers
Amos Wilson
Elias Low
Joseph Flanders
E. Hunt
Isaac Springsted
William Earl
Decatur Holden
Elmon S. Camp
Ezra Briggs
B. D. Arnold
David Ford
Wm. S. Mead
Susan T. Mead
Lyman Tubbs
Joshua Robinson
James Thompson
James L. Earl
Jabes Rogers
Peter Crowhurst
Warren Wilcut
Martha Matthews
Gideon Matthews
Jacob Miller
Horatio N. Tubbs
John C. Walden
Charles B. Cridland
J. C. Brooks
H. A. Taylor



Transcriptionist note: These names were almost impossible to read because of deterioration of typewriter or xerox ink

Cerydan M. SAWYER
Alfleda KEITH
Harvey KEITH
Cornelius W. VINING
Elesta WILCO
Daniel S. SACCO ?
Lucius N. NEWS ?
David FORD
Henry D. HALL
Rebecca HALL
William S. MEAD
Susan T. MEAD
George O. BELL (Note: Impossible to read. May be something like George Owrell on the list of cancelled certificates.)
Erastus WEEKS
William GRANT, Junior
Lyman TUBBS Jr. *
L. S. BLAK—–? *
Samuel S. HINKLE
Laura S. BRADFORD? *
Measer HURS? or Eleaser HUNT? *
James NORSIER? *
Otis McOMBER *
Pliny McOMBER *
Charlotte McOMBER *
Zenas NASH (unintelligible) *
William GOULD *
Thomas W. FISH— *
Charles E. NOYES? * (possibly Chauncy H. Noyes)
John P. B—- ***
Jacob NILLOW? **
Luke KEITH *
Albert ? *
Roswell RANSOM *
James RICHES? *
Jo()? SPRI—— *

* Those with an asterisk don’t appear on the list of cancelled certificates.–jk
** Is not Jacob MILLER who appears higher on the list. *** Perhaps John C. BROOKS on the cancelled certificate list.


The Constitution of the Alphadelphia Association

I have examined the original handwritten document but have abridged it.

The purpose: founding a Foerstic and Industrial Association.


Sec. 6
The capital stock of this association shall be two hundred thousand dollars which may be increased to two million dollars by a majority vote: and shall be divided into shares of fifty dollars each and tenths of a share.

Sec. 9
This Association shall have the power to issues evidences of debt to amount of vie per cent on capital stock.


Sec. 4
Any person may become a stockholder without becoming a member


Sec. 1
After an amount sufficient to pay the taxes, insurance and repairs shall have been deducted from the total income of the Assoc., one fourth of the remainder shall be paid to the stockholders and three fourths to the laborers, annually.

Sec. 2
Dividend due to stock, shall for the first three years be paid in stock certificates, except such stock as shall have been paid in cash.

Sec. 3
This Assoc. shall reward its operatives in proporting to the labor and skill required.

Sec. 4
Whenever the annual dividend on stock shall amount to ten per cent, one per cent of the entire income of the Assoc. shall be deducted. When said dividend shall amount to twenty per cent, two per cent shall be deducted. And when said dividend shall exceed twenty


per cent, an additional sum of ten per cent shall be deducted from such excess which said deductions shall constitute a fund for educational purposes.

Sec. 5
Free schools furnished with suitable apparatus for illustrating the branches taught shall be established…and be maintained throughout the year, on the principle of uniting labor with study and theory with practice.

Sec. 6
Whenever a sufficient amount of funds, arising from the operation of Sec. 4 of this article, shall have been reached, a Seminary of the higher order shall be established, wherein shall be taught in a practical manner all the Arts and Sciences, particularly Mechanics, Chemistry, Agriculture and Manufactures.

Sec. 7
This Assoc. shall provide a public library from the funds created by Sec. 4


Sec. 2
The treasurer shall give security for the faithful performance of his duty.


Sec. 1
Any member that shall be guilty of misconduct may be expelled by a vote of two-thirds of the resident members.


Sec. 1
Every member twenty-one years of age shall have one vote in admitting and expelling members.

Sec. 2
Every male member shall be entitled to one vote in all matters of business.



Stock book
Journal from July 23, 1844 to May 2, 1848
Day Book from July 23, 1844 to April 30, 1848
Time Book
Index to Time Book
Book containing minutes of meetings from Mar. 21, 1844 to Aug. 1, 1844, also appraisals
Ledger of Blake & Keith
Day Book of J. W. and C. L. Keith from July 27, 1853 to Jan. 23, 1854
Day Book of Blake and Keith from Aug. 13, 1852 to July 27, 1853
Account Book in which first entry is “Le Roy April 2, 1831”


Primitive Expounder of Jan. 5, 1844, an extra containing constitution of Association
Primitive Expounder of Jan. 23, 1845, Vo. 1. II, no. 5
Primitive Expounder of July 24, 1845, vol. II, no. 18

Other papers

Original copy of Constitution of Alphadelphia Association
Rules of House of Representatives of State of Michigan

Papers of Council of Arbitration

Aug. 1845 Complaint vs. L. Luscomb and James Thompson
June 17, 1845 Case vs. Richard McOmber
Case of Dr. H. R. Schetterly
Articles of Council of Arbitration

Attached letter

Ann Arbor

April 10, 1959

Mrs. Catherine Livingston
Galesburg, Michigan

Dear Mrs. Livingston:

I was very sorry to have missed seeing you on your visit to the Collections last week. I hope you had time to look through the Alphadelphia materials.

When I visited with you last summer you mentioned that you had done a paper on the Alphadelphia Association. We are very much interested in having a copy of this paper if you have one to spare.

We have not gotten in any additional Alphadelphia material, but we are still looking. I believe I mentioned that we are especially anxious to locate copies of The Tocsin.

I am enclosing a list of stockholders of the Alphadelphia Association. Perhaps you might know some of the descendants of these people who might have copies of The Tocsin or other Alphadelphia material. This list was taken from one of the account books here. It is undoubtedly incomplete as far as listing all members. Many of the names were difficult to make out, which means there are probably misspellings.

I hope you can drop by the Collections again before long.

Sincerely yours,

Robert M. Warner
Field Representative

Alphadelphia Shareholders


The names were difficult to read. Corrections are welcome.

Cerydan M. SAWYER
Alfleda KEITH
Harvey KEITH
Cornelius W. VINING
Elesta WILCO
Daniel S. SACCO ?
Lucius N. NEWS ?
David FORD
Henry D. HALL
Rebecca HALL
William S. MEAD
Susan T. MEAD
George O. BELL (Note: Impossible to read. May be something like George Owrell on the list of cancelled certificates.)
Erastus WEEKS
William GRANT, Junior
Lyman TUBBS Jr. *
L. S. BLAK—–? *
Samuel S. HINKLE
Laura S. BRADFORD? *
Measer HURS? or Eleaser HUNT? *
James NORSIER? *
Otis McOMBER *
Pliny McOMBER *
Charlotte McOMBER *
Zenas NASH (unintelligible) *
William GOULD *
Thomas W. FISH— *
Charles E. NOYES? * (possibly Chauncy H. Noyes)
John P. B—- ***
Jacob NILLOW? **
Luke KEITH *
Albert ? *
Bil CLI— *
Roswell RANSOM *
James RICHES? *
Jo()? SPRI—— *

* Those with an asterisk don’t appear on the list of cancelled certificates.–jk
** Is not Jacob MILLER who appears higher on the list. *** Perhaps John C. BROOKS on the cancelled certificate list.

Transcribed by JMK 2001


First Officers (named 3 Jan 1844):

First President: Dr. H. R. SCHETTERLY
First Vice President: A. DARROW
First Secretary: E. S. CAMP
First Treasurer: John CURTIS
First Directors: G. S. AVERY, Alanson MEECH, Harvey KEITH, William EARL, Dr. Ezra STETSON, William GRANT, Amos PICKET, Alson DELAMATTER, C. W. VINING, Charles MASON, H. B. TEED.

Directors Named March 21, 1844: Spencer MITCHELL, Anson DELAMATTER, John CURTIS, H. G. PIERCE, John WHITE, Henry H. READING, James WEEKS, William S. MEAD, Albert WHITCOMB, Dr. H. R. SCHETTERLY, David FORD, Benjamin WRIGHT.

Below is the document from which I attempted to transcribe the above names. Right click “view image” to see full size.

The Alphadelphia Association

The following article was supplied by Nancy Benton and transcribed by me.

* * * * *


From a History of Kalamazoo Co., MI by Everts and Abbott, published 1880. Graciously supplied by Nancy Benton

“History of Alphadelphia.–The theory of holding property in common was advanced by Pythagoras, and was fully advocated and given to the world by the great Plato in his ‘Republic.’ The idea of man’s living in common with his fellows is essentially primitive. It is certain that man early sought, not only the ‘elixir of life’ and the ‘philosopher’s stone,’ but the ‘golden mean of life’ where labor bestowed her rewards on the true principle of merit, and health, virtue, honor, and happiness followed in her train. The earliest efforts of industry have been to eliminate the evils that beset her path, and to get rid of the ruinous effects of competition, that evil genius of society, by the substitution of a healthy emulation, that labor should ever be honored, and that wealth or capital which she creates should ever be subservient to her. Philosophers have ever striven to find the mode of life that would endow man with the most health and happiness; the poet has sung:

“He that holds fast the golden mean,
And lives contentedly between
The little and the great,
Feels not the wants that pinch the poor,
Nor plagues that haunt the rich man’s door,
Embittering all his state.’

“From Abraham on the plains of Mamre to the shepherds tending the flocks among the Judean hills, long before ‘they hung their harps on the willows and sat down by the rivers of Babylon and wept,’ all through those periods of history we find a tendency to pastoral communism. Coming down to the middle ages, we find the monks occasionally trying communistic life. And, reaching our own time, we shall have Louis Blanc, Saint-Simon, and Charles Fourier in France, Robert Owen in Scotland,and his son, Robert Dale, in America, giving to the world the theory and practice of what is commonly known as Socialism in Germany, Communism in France, and Fourierismin America. Among these, which essentially are one, are the Alphadelphians and the late co-operationists, with various other theories and theorists.

“Origin of Alphadelphia Association in Comstock.–On the 14th day of December, 1843, pursuant to a call for a convention published in a Primitive Expounder at Ann Arbor, 56 persons from the counties of Wayne, Oakland, Washtenaw, Genesee, Jackson, Eaton, Calhoun, and Kalamazoo, assembled in the school-house at the head of Clarke’s Lake, in Columbia, Jackson Co. The object of the convention was to organize and found a domestic and industrial institution. These 56 men, after a laborious session of three days, each session extending from morning to midnight, adopted the outline of a constitution, which was referred to a committee of three, composed of Dr. H. R. SCHETTERLY, James BILLINGS and Franklin PIERCE, for revision and amendment. A committee, consisting of Dr. H. R. SCHETTERLY, John CURTIS, and Wm. GRANT, was appointed to view three places designated by the convention as suitable for a domain. The convention then adjourned to meet at Bellevue, Eaton Co., on the 3rd day of January 1844, when they would receive the reports of said committee on location, and revise, perfect, and adopt their constitution. The committee on location went forth, like those men of old, ‘to spy out the land,’ to select a goodly region suitable for domain. The adjourned convention met on the day appointed, and, after listening to the reports of the committee on location, they chose the southeast quarter of section 23, in the township of Comstock, county of Kalamazoo, as a permanent home, whose advantages the committee set forth in the following terms:

“‘The Kalamazoo River is a large and beautiful stream, 9 rods wide and 5 feet deep in the middle, flowing at the rate of about four miles per hour, and with 8 feet fall, which can be obtained without flowing any land worth mentioning; by digging a race one mile and a half in length, it will propel 100 run of stone in the dryest season. The digging is easy, and may be nearly all done with scrapers and teams.’ They then speak of ‘the places where the mansion and the manufactories will stand, on a beautiful plain, descending gradually towards the river,–a plain 50 to 60 rods wide, skirted on the south by a range of hillocks about 20 feet high, and running parallel with the river. Beyond these, some 10 or 30 rods,is a gentle, undulating plain, extending south, east and west for miles, and being covered with the most thrifty timber your committee ever beheld, consisting of whitewood, black, white and blue ash, white and red oak, two kinds of beech and two of elm, black walnut, soft maple, some cherry and especially hard maple in a large quantity and the best quality. There is a spring, pouring out a barrel of water per minute, one-half a mile from where the mansion and manufactories will stand.’ They say cobble-stone for buildings and dams are plenty on the domain, and sand and clay for making brick in abundance. Iron ore is known to exist on the domain, butits extent is not yet found out. The Michigan Central Railroad will run one and a half miles north of the proposed site of the mansion. They found no cause for fever here; there were only 2 out of 150, in seven years, who died of fever. The soil of the domain is exceedingly fertile and of great variety, consisting of prairie, oak-opening, timbered-and-bottomland along the river, and about 3000 acres of it have been tendered to our association as stock to be appraised at the cash value. Nine hundred acres of this land have been cultivated, and nearly all the rest have been offered in exchange for other improved lands owned by members living at a distance.

“The convention there perfected, engrossed and adopted their constitution, which was signed by 51 members, nearly all fathers of families, and respectable and thrifty farmers, mechanics, and manufacturers. This number might easily have been doubled in Bellevue and vicinity, but the convention thought proper to restrict the membership for the present to those who had taken an active part in the enterprise. The following is a list of the officers elected at this Bellevue convention: President: Dr. H. R. SCHETTERLY, of Ann Arbor; Vice-President, A DARROW, of Bellevue; Secretary, E. S. CAMP, of MARSHALL; Treasurer, John CURTIS, Norville, Jackson Co.; Directors, G. S. AVERY and Alanson MEECH, Bellevue; Harvey KEITH, Wm. EARL, and Dr. Ezra STETSON, Galesburg; Wm. GRANT, sandstone; Amos POCKET, Anson DELAMARTER, and C. W. VINING, Columbia, Jackson Co.; Charles MASON and H. B. TEED, Battle Creek.

“We pass on in our history, and find the next scene laid in the township of Comstock, Kalamazoo, Co. The beginning of the history here consisted of the visit of the committee on location, of whom we have spoken. At that time the pioneers of this part of the county had enlarged their clearings into good farms. They were getting out of the woods, and began to enjoy the fruits of their hard toil in making their improvements. It was at this time, Dec. 23, 1843, that this committee came among them. Dr. H. R. SCHETTERLY was the controlling spirit of this party, as well as of the association. He was a German, and had imbibed the views of Charles Fourier. He was a small, slender man, with dark hair and eyes and complexion; was a man of talent, and an enthusiast on his special theme of Fourierism. With a Burr-like persuasiveness he soon won his way into the confidences, the homes, and the hearts of the old pioneers of Comstock. In the public meetings he held here, he pictured to their imaginations a life as picturesque as a Cooper could draw;–a life of Arcadian healthfulness and enjoyment; of Spartan fidelity and frugality; a life in whose calendar the selfish ‘mine’ and ‘thine’ would not exist, for all would be absorbed in the more humane and harmonious ‘ours’. He was an able and effective speaker, and could use the philosophy, the learning, and logic of Fourier and Owen with most convincing effect upon his bearers. We can imagine the glowing picture he drew of the pastoral and happy life there was in store for his adherents in their future mansion-home on the banks of the beautiful Kalamazoo. Here, surrounded by his wife and dear ones, the pioneer would realize the truth of the poet:

“‘Here, on this fertile, fair domain,
Unvexed with all the cares of gain,
In summer’s heat and winter’s cold,
He fed his flock and penned his fold;
His hours in cheerful labor flew,
Nor strike, nor hate, nor envy knew.’

“From the first appearances of this disciple of Fourier among them the settlers were unusually interested in this new theory of living; and before he had been here three days many of them were enthusiastic Fourierites and anxious to join the association. Viewing the matter in the sober, calm reflection of to-day, we would as soon think of trying to cheat old Professor Playfair by inserting passages of a ‘Fourth-of-July oration’ into the demonstration of a proposition of Euclid as that this little black-haired German Socialist should make Fourierites of such sturdy old pioneers as Lyman TUBBS, Amos WILSON, Harvey KEITH, David FORD, Joseph FLANDERS, Dr. Ezra STETSON, William EARL, Roswell RANSOM, James NOYES, Hannibal TAYLOR, C. L. KEITH, P. H. WHITFORD, and scores of other early settlers, who, like them, were noted for their practical hard sense and shrewd discernment of men and things. But the truth is, the Fourierite came among them just at the right time, for the common hardships and suffering, which all alike had passed through, had established a genuine brotherhood among the old settlers. Their property, although not held in common, caused no envy and created no distinctions. Their condition and surroundings were such as to foster a feeling of brotherhood. They helped each other not only at raisings, but in clearing off their lands, in husking their corn, and through all troubles and over all difficulties. Wherever their aid or kindness could be of any avail, it was cheerfully given. If they were not all poor alike, there was no wealthy class, no special strife or rivalry, but they lived together, in the same community, as harmonious and happy as if they were members of one family; so that when Dr. SCHETTERLY came here to found his domestic and industrial association, which was now called Alphadelphia, he found many of the settlers, if not altogether, almost, Alphadelphians to begin with; and hence his work here was comparatively easy in his school of reform. As evidence of this, we quote the first part of the report of Dr. SCHETTERLY concerning the process of his labors, as one of the committee on location, in Comstock. It is as follows:

“‘Galesburg, Kalamazoo Co., Dec. 27, 1843
“‘TO THE FOURIER CONVENTION TO BE HELD AT BELLEVUE: Your committee arrived here on Saturday evening the 23d ult., and rejoice to say that an ardor now exists among the people in this phase for entering into association which never can be cooled until their wishes shall have been realized. Two meetings have been held, of three hours’ duration each, by your committee, and attended by crowded audiences, and more information is still solicited.’ Farther on he quotes David FORD as saying: ‘No man must oppose a project so fraught with principles calculated to promote the best interests of mankind.’

“Under such favorable auspices, the work of founding an association in Comstock was soon affected. It was first intended to build the mansion on the south side of the river. But the other side was afterwards selected for this purpose. The domain was intended to include the southeast quarter of the township of Comstock. The first year of the organization the association had possession of nearly all of section 23, the west half of 24, and a large part of the north halves of 25 and 26. The first meeting on the domain was held in the house of Harvey KEITH, at eight o’clock A.M., March 21, 1844. The directors were Spencer MITCHELL, Anson DELAMATTER, John CURTIS, H. G. PIERCE, John WHITE, Henry H. READING, James WEEKS, Wm. S. MEAD, Albert WHITCOMB, H. R. SCHETTERLY, David FORD and Benjamin WRIGHT. The name of the association was to be Alphadelphia, or First Brotherhood; its officers, a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and twelve directors. At this first meeting the above directors chose for president Anson DELAMATTER, secretary Henry H. READING, and the association went to work. I cannot find the treasurer’s name, nor the vice-president’s. The meetings were held in the houses of the resident members until the mansion was built.

“The Comstock members lived in their own houses, and those who came from abroad were accommodated with such homes as they could get, until a long shanty was built on the north side of the river, which was occupied as a general ‘tabernacle’ by the new members until the mansion was erected, in the fall of 1844. This building was originally some 20 by 200 feet and 2 stories high.

“The first school was taught by James Allen KNIGHT in a log building on the south side of the river. The pupils lived on the other side of the stream, and crossed it in a boat used for that purpose. Afterwards, Mr. AVERY, the Shaker, taught school on the north side, and was succeeded by Miss Nancy A.TUTTLE who married Levi S. BLAKESLEY, the printer. Miss M. HACHETT also taught school there. They had no lawyer; they settled their difficulties by arbitration, and saved money and much trouble. Philander H. BOWMAN of Jackson, was the physician; James HOXIE, of Bellevue, was the leading carpenter; Leonard LUSCOMB was the tailor; G. O. BALL and John WETHERBEE, the shoemakers; Nelson TUBBS, the blacksmith; and C. L. KEITH the wagon-maker. The editors were Dr. SCHETTERLY and Rev. Richard THORNTON; the printers, Levi S. BLACKESLEY and C. W. SAWYER. The paper was called the Alphadelphia Tocsin. Mr. THORNTON also published the Primitive Expounder, which he had formerly published at Ann Arbor. This was a staunch Universalist journal. Most of the leaders of this movement were Universalists, and the preaching at Alphadelphia was mostly from ministers of that denomination, Revs. R. THORNTON, J. BILLINGS, and E. WHEELER officiating in that capacity generally. They also had preaching from ministers of other denominations. Their constitution says, ‘The religious and political opinions of the members are to be unmolested and inviolate; and no member shall be compelled to support, in any way, any religious worship.’ It further more provides for ‘the support of all resident members whose stock is insufficient to support them, in case of sickness or any other cause.’

“The constitution was explicit and ample on the subject of education, general health, and moral reforms. Any person of good moral character, of twenty-one years of age, could be admitted to membership by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided he had six months’ provision for the future, or the means to furnish it. They were to reward operatives in proportion to the labor or skill bestowed, and they were to equalize the labor and skill of males and females. The latter could become members at the age of eighteen, by the requisite vote of the members.

“The organization having been thoroughly effected, the mansion built, the property, both personal and real, of every member, having been appraised by competent judges appointed for that purpose, and the amounts entered upon the books of the association as credit to each member for so much stock, at $50 a share, Alphadelphianism was then ready to drive its team afield and turn its first furrow. Then the busy hive of Alphadelphians could go forth to work, each in his or her special vocation; some as farmers, some as housewives, others as doctors, teachers, editors, and printers; some as mechanics, teamsters, tailors, brickmakers, men-of-all-work, till all the professions, trades, callings, talents, skill, and labor of the association that could be made available was turned into its proper field of usefulness. This was the great object for which the organization was effected, to live and work together in harmony, and enjoy the benefits of each other’s society and the fruits of their own labor, like a united happy family. How far they succeeded in accomplishing this their four years’ trial, that ended in a total failure, plainly tells.

“From the old census-list taken by C. L. Keith, in May 1845, I find the number of male and female residents on the domain to be 188. There must have been at this time, counting resident and non-resident members, over 300 in all. The total value of the association’s real estate, as appraised March 9, 1846, by Lyman TUBBS and E. M. CLAPP, of the general council, wasa $43, 897.21. The first death on the domain was that of the son of S. W. VINTON, in 1844. The first marriage was in October, 1845, when Rev. Asa BUSHNELL made one for life our old pioneer friend P. H. WHITFORD and Miss Emeline A. T. WHEELOCK. The Alphadelphia poet, C. H. BRADFORD, sonnetized the happy pair in the columns of the Primitive Expounder, where you will find a poem, on the occasion of their marriage, called the ‘Socialist’s Bride.’ We have heard Mr. WHITFORD remark that he ‘went into the association with a yoke of oxen, and came out with a wife and a buggy.’ We don’t know how valuable the buggy was, but every one of his old friends will say that he left the Alphadelphia domain with a great prize–his estimable wife.

“A large number put their farms into the association; others put in various kinds of property; James NOYES put in his saw-mill, which was valuable in furnishing lumber to the society. That some of them lost much of what they put in; and that others sacrificed a great deal to get their farms back, or in taking ‘what they could get’ as an equivalent for the property they hadbought there; and that some lost all they put in; and that some went away richer than they came,–I believe one and all of these to be true.

“From their first meeting of the domain, March 21, 1844, till the last entry on the journal of the association, April 30, 1848, the presidents were Anson DELAMATTER, Benjamin WRIGHT, Harvey KEITH, Lyman TUBBS and James NOYES. The first entry on the day-book is–

“1844,July 23. Sold to H. G. Pierce.
Two pairs of hose at 2s 6d……….0.63
One spool-stand at 1s. 6d……….. .19
Two spools of thread at 0s. 3d………. . 03

“The last entry is–

“1848, April 30. David Ford, Dr.
To use of Roger’s farm and pasturage……….$40.00

James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell of Liberal, Missouri

The photo, courtesy of Nancy Benton, shows James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell with daughters Emma Viola b. 1860 and Cora Rachel b. 1863. One will notice that the photograph is actually 2 combined.

James Allen NOYES was my grandfather. He had a happy childhood at Pavilion, Mich near Kalamazoo. His father was experimenting with the theory of Alphadelphianism, and they all lived in common community. After his mother’s death and his father’s marriage to Miss Susan WATERS, who was southern in belief, he was unhappy and started out for himself. He was forever looking for other communities that were trying the theory of Alphadelphianism. He went to Berlin Heights, Erie Co., Ohio, where such a group existed. Here he met Caroline ATWELL of Waterbury, VT who was living with an aunt and attending school. He was drafted in the Union army but paid a substitute to go in his place. In 1864 he left Michigan and went to Anna, Illinois where he lived 18 years raising fruit and potatoes and shipping to the Chicago market before coming to Liberal, MO, where he had heard of another group of Freethinkers that had ideas similar to Alphadelphians. The trip from Anna to Liberal took three weeks by covered wagon in 1882. He saw his idea fail again at Liberal. He died on his farm at Liberal in 1901. I well remember the songs he used to sing to me, walks he and I took to the neighbors and especially the whistles he could make from maple whips early in the spring.

Source: Nancy Benton, from Grace Noyes Pinkerton’s writing on the Noyes.

James Allen NOYES, son of James NOYES and Sally MARBLE was born 22 Dec. 1826 at Ann Arbor, Michigan. He died 24 Jan. 1901 at Liberal Barton Co. MO.

On 28 June 1859 at (Brady Village) Kalamazoo Co. Michigan, James NOYES married Caroline ATWELL, daughter of Hiram ATWELL and Rachel SCAGEL.

Caroline was born 2 Oct 1835 at Waterbury, Washington Co. VT and died 18 April 1894 at Liberal Barton Co. MO.

James was 32 and Caroline 23 when they were married. He died at 74 and she at 58. Emma born when they were 25 and 34. Cora born when they were 27 and 36. Victor born when they were 29 and 38. Allen born when they were 32 and 41. Paul born when they were 34 and 42. Ray born when they were 38 and 47.

In 1864, James and Caroline moved to Anna, Union County, Illinois. In 1882, they moved to Barton County, Missouri where they resided the remainder of their lives.

James and Caroline had the following children:

  • 1) Emma Viola was b. 15 Dec. 1860 at 4 oclock at Wakeshma MI, married, 9 June 1878 in Anna, Union Co. IL, Ormie Ellie HARMON who was born Dec. 1853 in Michigan. They adopted Cora’s son Robert after her death in childbirth. Emma died at age 85, 24 Oct. 1946, in Monroe, LA. O. E. Harmon wrote, “The Story of Liberal Missouri”

    “Viola had a son who died when he was about a year old. She and husband O.E. adopted her sister’s son when her sister died in childbirth. They lived in Chehalis, WA for 20 years, then moved to Liberal where they lived for 40 years. She died of heart failure in home of her adopted son, Robert Harmon, in Monroe, LA.”
    SOURCE: Nancy Benton
  • (2) Cora Rachel was born 19 April 1863 at “1 and 1/4 oclock” in Wakeshma, MI. She married Frank GREEN, 30 March 1886 at Junction, Geary, KS. Cora died in childbirth, 16 Oct. 1887 at Liberal, Barton Co. MO. Her son, Robert, was adopted by Cora’s sister, Emma Viola.
  • (3) Victor Hugo was born 20 August 1865 at “4 o clock” in Anna, Union Co. IL. He died at the age of 21, 23 Oct. 1886 at Wildwood, FL., killed by a train. Because of a yellow fever epidemic, his body was buried for a year there, then brought to Liberal. Victor traveled a good deal, including a trip to China, from which he returned with silkworms which he raised for silk. A letter of his is on this blog.
  • (4) Allen Marble was born 30 Oct. 1867 at “4 o’clock AM” at Anna, Union County, Illinois. He married Susie REYNOLDS, 1 May 1897, at age 29. He died, 21 April 1939, at Dexter, Stoddard Co., MI at the age of 72. His Niece, Grace PINKERTON, wrote, “Allen made the land run into Indian Territory in 1889 and settled on a farm near Miller, OK. Since he had made the first run and was experienced, he was the teacher of a group of ten men who made the run into the Cherokee Strip in 1893. They met at Orlando, OK. several days before at the home of one of the men. They rode into the strip early to choose the place they wanted which was about midway or nearly a 30 mile ride from the border. The farms were adjoining ones in a bend of two streams called Red River and Bunch Creek. On the morning of September 16 1893 everyone lined up on the border. The only food they carried with them was bread.” The 1889 land run was April 22nd. An 1895 map shows a town of MIller in OK County, in the Spring Creek area, toward the center of the state, below Logan and west of Pottawatomie.
  • (5) Paul was born 24 Nov. 1869 at “10 oclock AM” in Anna, Union Co. IL, and died 3 May 1931 at Humansville, Polk Co., MO. He married Edna STARK. Their two children were Grace, b. 1892, who married PINKERTON, and Ormal, b. 1893. His daughter, Grace PINKERTON, wrote, “Paul made the run into the OK Cherokee Strip with his brother Allen in 1893. Another man arrived at the property he wanted at the same time and he paid him $25 for the site. He had bought a fine racing mare to ride in the opening and was grieved when she had to be shot a few days later because her hooves were coming off from being ridden so hard. After he completed the required shanty and fencing and plowed a plot of ground, he went back to his brother Allen’s farm to get his family.” He can be seen in the 1900 Barton Co. census. More on Paul Noyes.
  • (6) Ray, b. 4 Jan. 1874 at “10 1/2 clock A.M.” at Anna, Union Co., IL, married Elizabeth Jane BREWER.
    Post on the family of Ray and Bettie.

James Allen NOYES’ father was a president of the Alphadelphia Association, a Utopian community which lasted from 1844 to 1848. James Allen traveled to different communities and he and, as noted above, were at Berlin Heights. Later they moved to Liberal, Missouri, which was to be a “Free-Thinkers” town. During the McCarthy years the family destroyed all materials and letters associated with Alphadelphia and the days of Utopian interests.


A time line will help with presenting events on James Allen’s life.

• Birth, 22 Dec 1826, Michigan, Washtenaw County, Ann Arbor. Birth date from Family Record of James Noyes created by James A. and Caroline Atwell Noyes. The copy by Caroline gives the birth year as 1836.

1826 was the year of the formation of Washtenaw Co.

• Sibling’s Birth: Maryette is born., 17 Jul 1828.

• Census, 1830, Michigan, Washtenaw County, Ann Arbor.

An unidentified 20 to 30 year old male is in the household.

pg. 138
Harvey CHUBB
Phillip McKUNAN?
Michael STUBBS
Elam SLOE?
William ALLEN
David HUEA?
Joseph LORCE
Benjamin SUTTON
James NOYES 1 – 1 – 1 1 | 1 1 1 – – 1
NOTE: 1 male under 5, 1 10 to 15, 1 male 20 to 30, 1 male 30 to 40, 1 female under 5, 1 female 5 to 10, 1 female 10 to 15, 1 female 30 to 40.
1 male under 5 would be James Allen. Male 10 to 15 would be Ezra. James is the 30 to 40 male. I don’t know who the 20 to 30 male is. 1 female under 5 would be Maryette. Female 5 to 10 would be B. J. Female 10 to 15 would be Elizabeth. And then Sally Marble.

• Sibling’s Birth: Dan is born., 4 Nov 1831.

• Sibling’s Birth: Delia is born., 15 Nov 1833.

• Sibling’s Death: Dan dies at the age of 3 of malaria fever., 10 Sep 1835.

• Sibling’s Death: Delia dies at 4 of malaria fever., 1837.

• Mother’s Death, 10 Aug 1838. James’ mother died when he was 11.

• Father remarries, 1839. James’ father remarries to Susan WATERS.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, George W. is born., 8 May 1840.

• Census, 1840, Michigan, Kalamazoo County, Pavilion Township.

pg. 253 ( 1)
Martin McCAIN
James NOYES 1 – 1 1 2 – 1 | 1 – 1 1 1
NOTE: 1 male under 5, 1 male 10 to 15, 1 male 15 to 20, 2 males 20 to 30 1 male 40 to 50, 1 female under 5, 1 female 10 to 15, 1 female 15 to 20, 1 female 20 to 30

1 male under 5 would be George W. (son of Susan Waters and James Noyes), 1 male 10 to 15 would be James Allen. 1 male 15 to 20 would be? 1 of the 2 20 to 30 males would be Ezra, James is the 40 to 50 year old male. 1 female under 5 would be Sarah Malissa, 1 female 10 to 15 would be Maryette. 1 female 15 to 20 would be B. J. 1 female 20 to 30 would not be Elizabeth if she was married before 1839. Though Susan’s birthdate is given as 1815, this female would be her.

• Sibling’s Death: Ezra dies at 23., 17 Jun 1841.

• Sibling’s Death: Maryette dies at the age of 14., 13 Feb 1843.

• Sibling’s Death: B. J. dies at the age of 19, of malaria fever., 6 May 1843.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Daniel T. is born, 11 Sep 1843.

• Half-sibling’s Death: Daniel T. dies in infancy., After 11 Sep 1843.

• Commune: Alphadelphia – First meeting, 21 Mar 1844.

• 1846. It was under duress that Dr. H. R. Schetterly, who founded the Alphadelphia Association, was forced to leave, the Community convicting him of appropriating goods to the amount of two hundred dollars and the Sunday June 21 1846 Day Book reporting that he “ran away this day.”

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Mary R. is born., 7 Mar 1847.

• Commune: Alphadelphia – Dissolution, 30 Apr 1848.

• Residence, 3 Jun 1848, Indiana, Lagrange County,

James compiled a list of family births and deaths and dated it 1848, place, IN, Lagrange Co., Springfield.

Schetterly, a founding member of Alphadelphia, is also given in one of the news articles on Alphadelphia as going to Lagrange and Wisconsin. It’s known he left Kalamazoo in 1846 under duress. The record books for Alphadelphia give him as “fleeing” the community after getting in some trouble to do with funds. It could be that James Allen traveled with him, though with Schetterly fleeing under duress this is questionable.

The 1850 Indiana, Lagrange County, Springfield census shows Cornelius W. VINING, one of hte initial directors of Alphadelphia.

A Fourier publication from the 1840s refers to a Fourier community in Lagrange so that’s where I would imagine James was in 1848. John Humphrey Noyes mentions this info in his publication on American Socialism. In the same paragraph is mentioned a Fourier “Washtenaw Phalanx” which would be Alphadelphia. At the time the Washtenaw Phalanx was mentioned in the Fourier publication it was still in the planning stages, c. 1842

• Accessory Document: James Noyes Family Record, 3 Jun 1848.

• Timeline note: John Humphrey Noyes founds Oneida Perfectionist Community, 1848, New York, Oneida.

It is likely that at some point, James Allen stayed at Oneida. Dorothy Noyes McKenney (my grandmother) spoke of a relation (I had thought an aunt or great aunt) staying for a while with her family, who had been at Oneida. She was fairly concrete on this, saying the woman never married and would not discuss Oneida. But I have not been able to determine who this relative was. It is perhaps one of those family connections that isn’t apparent on the family tree and is not even recorded. My grandmother called her an aunt or great-aunt, but no such individual lived at Oneida. For all I know, if she wasn’t familially connected, she could have been an individual who James had met at Oneida, who later came to stay with the family and who was called “aunt”.

James Allan Noyes and John Humphrey Noyes were only 4th cousins, but John Humphrey Noyes’ sister Elizabeth F. had moved from Putney to to Kalamazoo, Michigan with her husband Fletcher Ransom and his brother Roswell Ransom is known to have been a member of Alphadelphia.

• Promissory Note: Places in Battle Creek, 14 Dec 1849.

For value received I promise to pay to James A. Noyes or bearer the sum of twenty three dollars & sixty cents on or before the first of June 1850 with use. Samuel Dickinson.
Battle Creek Dec 14 1849

• Travels, 1850-1860, Wisconsin, Waukesha County, New Berlin.

After the deaths of Hiram ATWELL and his wife Rachel SCAGEL, Caroline ATWELL is given as having gone to live with an aunt. This has been given by Grace Noyes Pinkerton, who first did the research, in both New Berlin, Wisconsin and Berlin Heights, Ohio. It appears that Caroline was indeed associated with both New Berlin and Berlin Heights for she had addresses in her address book connecting her with both places.

George SCAGEL and Deborah Hunkins SCAGEL were one set of relatives in New Berlin, Waukesha Co. WI in 1850. George’s sister, Sarah Sally Scagel BRYAN, was living next to the Hiram Atwell family in 1850. As George SCAGEL died in 1850, she perhaps went to live for a period with Deborah HUNKINS SCAGEL who was a first cousin once removed through the HUNKINS and also an aunt by way of being married to her mother’s brother, George.

George SCAGEL and wife Deborah HUNKINS were first cousins, he being a nephew of her mother Hannah SCAGEL. Moses HUNKINS, Deborah’s father, was a brother of Lydia HUNKINS who married Nathaniel ATWELL, father of Hiram ATWELL who married Rachel SCAGEL, sister of George. Moses and Lydia HUNKINS’ brother, Robert HASTINGS, had a grandson, Hazen Hastings HUNKINS, who married Aurelia Seymour SCAGEL, daughter of George SCAGEL and Deborah HUNKINS.

As noted, Aurelia, daughter of George and Deobrah, married Hazen Hastings HUNKINS. They had a daughter named Carrie in 1855 who is possibly a namesake of Caroline ATWELL, and was found in Caroline’s address book.

Daughter Deborah married Robert Hastings HUNKINS who was a nephew of Hazen Hastings HUNKINS through his brother Robert W. who is given as having died Feb 1845 in Wisconsin.

We have no way of knowing if Caroline went to Wisconsin before or after her working at Pacific Mills.

Tracing the whereabouts of Caroline Atwell and James Noyes circulates to some extent around the different communes of the time. Caroline’s address book and family history offer a few leads.

Schetterly, who founded the Alphadelphia Association of which James’ father was a President, in a news article on Alphadelphia is given as going to Lagrange , Indiana and Wisconsin then back to Michigan. No time frame is given but in the 1850 census Dr. Schetterly appears to be already back in Michigan. We know James Noyes was in Lagrange June 3 1848. It could be he traveled with him, though as Schetterly left under duress it seems questionable.

Grace Noyes Pinkerton recorded, “(James) was forever looking for other communities that were trying out the theory of Alphadelphianism. He went to Berlin Heights, Ohio, where such a group existed. Here he met Caroline Atwell of Waterbury, VT. She was living with an aunt and attending school.” Because this leaves out the time she worked at Pacific Mills, and because the time at New Berlin has apparently become confused with the time at Berlin Heights, it’s difficult to put the decade into chronological order in relation to Caroline and where she was at what time.

There was a Fouerier community in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin called the Ceresco Commune (1847-1851, given as dissolving December 1849…record books continued until 1857). Fond du Lac is a couple of counties over from Waukesha.

Though the Wisconsin Phalanx ended in 1857, its day as a commune were finished by 1851. It was supposed to have been a very successful community that disbanded at its height when it was still doing very well, and sold out its holdings for a good sum, making quite a profit.

The Wisconsin Phalanx ending in 1857 and the Berlin Heights experiment in OH beginning in 1857, so it is perhaps plausible that James may have gone to Wisconsin where he met Caroline (she is at the mill in 1857 but may not have been there for long), and then they both traveled to Berin Heights in Ohio. Sarah Melissa NOYES ended up in WI for a while with her husband John SLATER. They were married there in 1857. It may be that Sarah traveled there with James, and the 1857 marriage may help in placing Caroline and James perhaps meeting about that time in Wisconsin. Or as Pansy, their granddaughter states at one point, they may have met instead at Berlin Heights and Caroline’s time in New Berlin was separate from her meeting James NOYES. Regardless, they were together for a period of time in Ohio, as also evidenced by Caroline’s address book which gives the following name: Francis Barry Berlin Heights, Ohio.

The 1850 census shows for Ohio, Erie County, Berlin:

167/167 Samuel S. BARRY 25 blacksmith
Elsie H. BARRY 23
Francis O. BARRY 24 preacher after ancient gospel
George BUCKINGHAM 21 wagon maker
William BUCKINGHAM 23 wagon maker

I would imagine this is the same BARRY as below:

Francis Barry. Free Love community; ed. with Cordelia Age of Freedom, cited History of the Firelands, comprising Huron and Erie Counties, Ohio . . . (Cleveland, W.W. Williams, 1879), 487; Age of Freedom 1858)

Francis Barry had to do with the Berlin Heights Community, known as a kind of Free Love community, and published with Cordelia the “Age of Freedom” circular.

Hudson Tuttle wrote on Francis Barry, and apparently hadn’t much affection for his journal:

The Berlin people are noted for tolerance, but it may be presumed that the socialists, with their strange ideas, did not always find their paths strewn with roses, and the citizens still retain fresh in their memories, how, when Francis Barry attempted to mail a number of the obnoxious “Age of Freedom”, twenty Berlin women seized the mail-sack in which he had brought it on his shoulder to the office, and made a bonfire in the street. The following journals were successively started by the socialists and ran brief careers: “Social Revolutionist”, conducted by J. S. Patterson, 1857; “Age of Freedom”, commenced in 1858, Frank and Cordelia Barry and C. M. Overton, editors; “Good Time Coming”, 1859, edited by J. P. Lesley and C. M. Overton; the “New Republic”, 1862, edited by Francis Barry; “The Optimist” and “Kingdom of Heaven”, 1869, Thomas Cook, editor; “The Principia”, or Personality”, 1868, N. A. Brown, editor; the “New Campaign”, 1871, C. M. Overton, editor; “The Toledo Sun”, moved from Toledo to Be lin Heights in 1875, by John A. Laut. Besides these, two local newspapers were published for some time: “The Bulletin”, by W. B. Harrison, commenced in 1870; and the “Index” by F. J. Miles, commenced in 1875.

Whatever the sequence of events, Caroline and James would have been in Berlin Heights Ohio at the time the of the Community there.

John Humphrey NOYES, founder of the Oneida Community and distant relative of James Allen, wrote the following on the Berlin Heights experiment.

The Putney Community by John Humphrey Noyes, compiled and edited by George Wallingford Noyes

Chapter 19


SWEDENBORG was not alone in his hostility to marriage. The socialistic innovators, whose experiments we have reviewed, attacked not merely the economic hilt also the sexual foundations of modern society.

The religious colonies that came early from Europe felt instinctively that marriage was antagonistic to communism. Partly for this reason and partly in the interest of a supposedly higher religious life the Shakers adopted celibacy as a cardinal principle. The Rappites too were originally celibate. Even after marriage was allowed in order that they might “raise their own members,” sexual commerce beyond the requirements of reproduction was prohibited, and virginity was held to be more commendable than marriage. The Ephratists, the Zoarites and the Amana Society tolerated marriage, but looked upon it with disfavor.

Robert Owen did not attempt the immediate displacement of marriage. But he included marriage with irrational religion and private property as one of the “awful trinity” of man’s oppressors, and contemplated its ultimate destruction. His son, Robert Dale Owen, was outspoken in his enmity to marriage, and became a leading advocate of free divorce. Both father and son were enthusiastic disciples of Modern Spiritualism, a religious cult of which Free Love was believed by many the social complement.

Certain groups of “antinomian Perfectionists” renounced marriage and mated by spiritual affinity. [1] Noyes and the Putney Perfectionists, as we have seen, held aloof from these groups, believing that marriage was ordained by God as the law of the apostasy and was not to be set aside until salvation from sin and the resurrection of the body had been attained.

The Mormons in 1843 adopted polygamy, which Noyes called a dilution of marriage.

Like Robert Owen, American Fourierists were cautious of im-

1 Religious Experience of John Humphrey Noyes Chap. XIX.


mediate changes in the law of marriage. But Henry J. Raymond showed in his public debate with Horace Greeley that as a system Fourierism permitted “higher degrees of amorous freedom” after the human race had become regenerated by socialistic institutions.

The socialistic reformer whose teachings were the most highly subversive of marriage was Josiah Warren, inventor of the term “Individual Sovereignty.” At Modern Times, Long Island, his final socialistic experiment, each member was supposed to know his or her best interests in the sexual relation as in everything else, and no questions were asked. It was here that Warren in 1851 enlisted Stephen Pearl Andrews to popularize the doctrine of Individual Sovereignty by a series of lectures and by a pamphlet distributed gratuitously. Among the converts were Dr. and Mrs. Thomas L. Nichols, water-cure specialists of New York City. They were publicity adepts and prepared themselves at Modern Times to broadcast the principle of Free Love based on Individual Sovereignty and Modern Spiritualism.

The essential connection between Free Love and Spiritualism is thus stated by C. M. Overton, editor of The Social Revolutionist, a Free Love journal: “Free Love is a doctrine of Spiritualism. I say of Spiritualism, not of Spiritualists. Many recognize the facts of Spiritualism who know little of its philosophy. But will any intelligent Spiritualist deny that the concurrent testimony of the spheres proves that their inhabitants are controlled in their love relations not by arbitrary outside authority but by the law of attraction, affinity or Free Love? Is it not a conceded fact that the angels do not have to be hauled up before a magistrate to legalize their marriages? How supremely ridiculous the idea that the men and women of Paradise live together on the cat and dog principle because it wouldn’t be respectable to separate! They are not so generous there as to sacrifice their individual happiness for the good of the community. They are not so senseless there as to stay together and scratch and pull hair from a sense of duty to their children or other members of the community, when these other members are doing the same thing from the same laudable motive! The fact that they break up false relations there and form new ones is as well established and is just as much a part of the Spiritual or Harmonic Philosophy as the doctrine of Endless Progression.”

In 1852 the Nicholses joined with Andrews in establishing at Port Chester, New York, a Free Love School under the guise of a water-cure and vegetarian Medical College. It was suppressed by the authorities. Dr. Nichols then put forth a flowery prospectus


of “The Institute of Desarrollo.” This was to be based frankly on Individual Sovereignty, and was expected to garner all the results that had been vainly looked for in the Fourieristic Associations. A site was selected near Modern Times, the cellar dug, the foundation wall partly laid, when the plan was abandoned. Dr. Nichols explained that a campaign of education should precede practical attempts. To this be now addressed himself.

His first move was the establishment of a magazine called Nichols’ Journal, in which Spiritualism, health and social relations were discussed.

Next he published a book of five hundred pages entitled Esoteric Anthropology. This, he prefaced, was “no book for the center-table, the library shelf, or the counter of a bookstore.” It was a private treatise on physiology and health, written “not to get consultations but to prevent their necessity, not to attract patients but to keep them away.” Free Love, though hinted, was not directly advocated. During 1853 and 1854 twenty-six thousand copies were sold.
To this great audience Dr. Nichols in 1854 introduced his second book entitled Marriage, in which he openly presented his threefold creed, Individual Sovereignty, Spiritualism, and Free Love. Marriage ran through three large editions during its first year. By the fall of 1854 Dr. Nichols’ writings were circulating actively in every State of the Union, especially in the west.

So widespread was the popularity of these new doctrines that Dr. Nichols ventured upon overt acts in the full glare of publicity. With his former partner, Stephen Pearl Andrews, he instituted a series of “Sociables” in New York City, which were broken up by the police.

Dr. Nichols now found himself accepted as the prophet of a new age by scattered thousands eager to share in its benefits. How could he make his followers known to each other and commence the realization of their dream? The “spirits,” by whose illumination he says he had written his books, came again to his aid. They directed the formation of a “Protective Union.” A Central Bureau was established in New York City with Dr. Nichols as Secretary. All who wished to associate were enrolled as members and received a printed list of names and addresses. Thus a tempting opportunity was offered to affinity-hunters.

Early in 1856 Dr. Nichols began to see signs of a hurricane arising from the zephyr be had sown. Sensational charges were made in the newspapers and he found it necessary to issue a statement in his own defense. Hitherto no oath of secrecy had been exacted


from members, but now a circular was sent out prescribing a Declaration of Principles and secrecy of the most guarded kind. The Central Bureau was removed to Cincinnati away from the hostile press of the east and nearer the main body of its constituents. Dr. Nichols began to hint in the Journal that sexual commerce should be limited to propagation. In May 1856 he launched a “Harmonic Home” called Memnonia at Yellow Springs, Ohio. But he gave notice in the Social Revolutionist, that Memnonia would be “provisionally and necessarily a despotism,” as wise and benevolent as circumstances would permit.

But the western disciples of Dr. Nichols, trained by him in Individual Sovereignty, could brook no control. They turned their backs on Memnonia, and found a gathering-point at Berlin Heights, a small town near Cleveland, Ohio, where Individual Sovereignty, Spiritualism and Free Love were smoldering and could easily be fanned into flame.

Memnonia was Dr. Nichols’ last attempt at social reconstruction. After its failure, which was complete, Dr. and Mrs. Nichols recanted their errors to Archbishop Purcelle of Cincinnati and were received into the Catholic Church.
With the exit of Dr. Nichols the “Nicolaitan doctrine,” as it was called by Noyes in allusion to the doctrine which according to Revelation 2: 15 Christ “hated,” entered upon its final phase. The Rising Star Association of Darke County, Ohio, believing that a large organization necessarily infringed the rights of the individual, had striven since August 1853 to realize Individual Sovereignty in a small group with the hope that later a federation of small groups could safely be effected. In the spring of 1857 this Association removed from Darke County to Berlin Heights, and its press, The Social Revolutionist, having taken over the subscription list of Nichols’ Monthly, became the organ of fierce Spiritualistic Free Lovers eager for advance on a large scale. A convention was held at Berlin Heights in the fall of 1856, another in the fall of 1857. The next year thirty householders pledged themselves to dispose of their property and remove to Berlin Heights as soon as practicable. But the public had become aroused. The Social Revolutionist for November 1857 was seized and burnt by a mob, and the number for January 1858 was the last. After this, though many Spiritualistic Free Lovers continued to live at Berlin Heights, the Free Love movement which had centered there fell into complete disorganization.

Reviewing the fruits of Berlin Heights Free Love a prominent convert asserted that among less than one hundred persons there


were several suicides; that one man was in prison charged with murdering his wife’s sister, with whom he had been intimate; that three-quarters of the married couples had been separated and their families broken up; that many children born in Free Love had been forsaken; and that venereal disease had become alarmingly prevalent.

It isn’t as though John Humphrey Noyes didn’t have his own scandals to negotiate in the end, fleeing Oneida under the specter of statutory rape, men of the Oneida Community disgruntled at Noyes being the one who introduced females (some as young as 13) to the life of the Community in which it is said that every member was free to turn down sexual relations, but to do so could mean reprisal for selective love, which was seen even as a detrimental relationship even in the bonding of parents and children, for which reason children were removed from the care of their parents when weaned and placed in the Community Home. The abhorrence of selective love also prompted the burning of the childrens’ dolls.

• Travel, 1850-1860, Ohio, Erie County, Berlin Heights. At Berlin Heights sometime before and perhaps during 1859.

• Census: Possible, 1850, Illinois, Rock Island.

There is a James NOYS in the Rock Island Illinois census aged 23. Given as born Ohio however. But this James NOYS is in a household with a group of men of different professions. Nearby was a well-known Swedish utopian community, so I do wonder if this is James Allen Noyes. No way of knowing.

James NOYES is given as James NOYS in the 1860 census,which may also lend support to the Rock Island NOYS being James Allen NOYES.

24 October, R.I. Cty Lower Ward
Roll: M432_126 Page: 220 Image: 74
29 1177/1177 John LITTIG 50 Laborer $400 Germany
30 Mary 50 Germany
31 Mary 19 Germany
32 Nicholas 16 France
33 John 8 France
34 Amelia 4 Illinois
35 Andrew 2 Illinois
36 Morriah 1 Illinois
37 John LITTLE 84 Laborer Germany
38 Lewis RUBIDEAU 38 Laborer Canada
39 Mary 24 France
40 Lenora 5 Illinois
41 John L. 3 Illinois
42 Amanda 1 Illinois
1 Frederick RATCLIFF 29 m baker $300 England
2 A. D. GIBBONS 25 m wagonworks $300 Ohio
3 James NOYS 23 Laborer Ohio
4 William HOLLOWAY 33 Assesor Ohio
5 R. H? ANDREWS 24 Lawyer D.C.
6 William NEWBY 25 Sadler $1000 Ohio
7 A. H. MCCULLY 26 laborer Ireland

• Half-sibling’s Death: Mary R. dies as a young child, before the age of 3., Cir 1850.

• Sibling’s Death: Elizabeth dies at the age of 31., 22 Sep 1850.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, John W. is born., 31 Jan 1851.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Minerva is born., 19 Jun 1851.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Arilla W. is born., Cir 1851.

• 1851. In 1850 Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote, “The House of the Seven Gables”. Though it was Rev. Nicholas NOYES who had been purportedly cursed for his hand in the Salem witch trials, and who never had children, the forward of the book gives the curse falling upon John Hathorne, great-grandfather of Nathaniel Hawthorne, who was a magistrate at the Salem Witch Trials. It also gives the family having come to believe the curse fell not only upon Hathorne but the family in general, and was a matter of preoccupation for some. Seems the curse uttered against Noyes was absorbed by the Hathornes as belonging to them, and perhaps others involved absorbed it as well.

The House of the Seven Gables, antique as it now looks, was not the first habitation erected by civilized man on precisely the same spot of ground. Pyncheon Street formerly bore the humbler appellation of Maule’s Lane, from the name of the original occupant of the soil, before whose cottage-door it was a cow-path. A natural spring of soft and pleasant water-a rare treasure on the sea-girt peninsula where the Puritan settlement was made-had early induced Matthew Maule to build a hut, shaggy with thatch, at this point, although somewhat too remote from what was then the centre of the village. In the growth of the town, however, after some thirty or forty years, the site covered by this rude hovel had become exceedingly desirable in the eyes of a prominent and powerful personage, who asserted plausible claims to the proprietorship of this and a large adjacent tract of land, on the strength of a grant from the legislature. Colonel Pyncheon, the claimant, as we gather from whatever traits of him are preserved, was characterized by an iron energy of purpose. Matthew Maule, on the other hand, though an obscure man, was stubborn in the defence of what he considered his right; and, for several years, he succeeded in protecting the acre or two of earth which, with his own toil, he had hewn out of the primeval forest, to be his garden ground and homestead. No written record of this dispute is known to be in existence. Our acquaintance with the whole subject is derived chiefly from tradition. It would be bold, therefore, and possibly unjust, to venture a decisive opinion as to its merits; although it appears to have been at least a matter of doubt, whether Colonel Pyncheon’s claim were not unduly stretched, in order to make it cover the small metes and bounds of Matthew Maule. What greatly strengthens such a suspicion is the fact that this controversy between two ill-matched antagonists-at a period, moreover, laud it as we may, when personal influence had far more weight than now-remained for years undecided, and came to a close only with the death of the party occupying the disputed soil. The mode of his death, too, affects the mind differently, in our day, from what it did a century and a half ago. It was a death that blasted with strange horror the humble name of the dweller in the cottage, and made it seem almost a religious act to drive the plough over the little area of his habitation, and obliterate his place and memory from among men.

Old Matthew Maule, in a word, was executed for the crime of witchcraft. He was one of the martyrs to that terrible delusion, which should teach us, among its other morals, that the influential classes, and those who take upon themselves to be leaders of the people, are fully liable to all the passionate error that has ever characterized the maddest mob. Clergymen, judges, statesmen,–the wisest, calmest, holiest persons of their, day-stood in the inner circle round about the gallows, loudest to applaud the work of blood, latest to confess themselves miserably deceived. If any one part of their proceedings can be said to deserve less blame than another, it was the singular indiscrimination with which they persecuted, not merely the poor and aged, as in former judicial massacres, but people of all ranks; their own equals, brethren, and wives. Amid the disorder of such various ruin, it is not strange that a man of inconsiderable note, like Maule, should have trodden the martyr’s path to the hill of execution almost unremarked in the throng of his fellow sufferers. But, in after days, when the frenzy of that hideous epoch had subsided, it was remembered how loudly Colonel Pyncheon had joined in the general cry, to purge the land from witchcraft; nor did it fail to be whispered, that there was an invidious acrimony in the zeal with which he had sought the condemnation of Matthew Maule. It was well known that the victim had recognized the bitterness of personal enmity in his persecutor’s conduct towards him, and that he declared himself hunted to death for his spoil. At the moment of execution-with the halter about his neck, and while Colonel Pyncheon sat on horseback, grimly gazing at the scene-Maule had addressed him from the scaffold, and uttered a prophecy, of which history, as well as fireside tradition, has preserved the very words. “God,” said the dying man, pointing his finger, with a ghastly look, at the undismayed countenance of his enemy,–“God will give him blood to drink!” After the reputed wizard’s death, his humble homestead had fallen an easy spoil into Colonel Pyncheon’s grasp. When it was understood, however, that the Colonel intended to erect a family mansion-spacious, ponderously framed of oaken timber, and calculated to endure for many generations of his posterity-over the spot first covered by the log-built hut of Matthew Maule, there was much shaking of the head among the village gossips. Without absolutely expressing a doubt whether the stalwart Puritan had acted as a man of conscience and integrity throughout the proceedings which have been sketched, they, nevertheless, hinted that he was about to build his house over an unquiet grave. His home would include the home of the dead and buried wizard, and would thus afford the ghost of the latter a kind of privilege to haunt its new apartments, and the chambers into which future bridegrooms were to lead their brides, and where children of the Pyncheon blood were to be born. The terror and ugliness of Maule’s crime, and the wretchedness of his punishment, would darken the freshly plastered walls, and infect them early with the scent of an old and melancholy house. Why, then,–while so much of the soil around him was bestrewn with the virgin forest leaves,–why should Colonel Pyncheon prefer a site that had already been accurst?

So, Pyncheon dies apparently choking on his own blood. Some generations pass and the curse, which is one rather of posterity, weighs heavily.

Nathaniel Hawthorne builds his book upon that curse, and in this era gives the Free-Thinker the prescriptive saving grace. An artist, daguerreotypist, who has traveled a good deal, stayed for several months with a Fouererist community, has studied mesmerism, comes to the house and he and Phoebe (a Pyncheon) fall in love, etcetera, everyone is freed from the curse and of course the Artist is a descendant of Maule and acknowledges he is a sort of wizard himself. A little more complex than that but those are the fundamental wheels on which the car as novel is driven.

The daguerreotypist describes the family as carrying about a giant’s dead body, slaves to bygone times. “But we shall live to see the day, I trust…when no man shall build his house for posterity. Why should he? He might just as reasonably order a durable suit of clothes, –leather, or guttapercha, or whatever else lasts longest, –so that his great-grandchildren should have the benefit of them, and cut precisely the same figure in the world that he himself does. If each generation were allowed and expected to build its own houses, that single change, comparatively unimportant in itself, would imply almost every reform which society is now suffering for. I doubt whether even our public edifices–our capitols, state-houses, court-houses, city-hall, and churches,–ought to be built of such permanent materials as stone or brick. It were better that they should crumble to ruin once in twenty years, or thereabouts, as a hint to the people to examine into and reform the institutions which they symbolize.”

Interesting that Hawthorne used the Witch Trials and the curse as the basis for the novel. One hundred and sixty years after the Salem Witch Trials and the temper of that time and people, and the repercussions of the trials, was considered, by Hawthorne, to be significant, ongoing, intimate. An interesting commentary on the time.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Lunetta is born., 20 Apr 1854.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Jean N. is born., Cir 1856.

• Marriage, 28 Jun 1859, Michigan, Kalamazoo County, Brady Village. Marred at 32 to Caroline ATWELL who was 23.

• Census, 1860, Michigan, Kalamazoo County, Wakeshma. Nearby is a George SLATER, 22, b. OH, who may be a relation of John SLATER who married James NOYES’ sister Melissa in 1857 and was living with her in Wisconsin.

pg. 43 (16 of 18)
Lyman FAIRCHILD and family
John WEBSTER and Lydia (in above FAIRCHILD household)
306/308 Charles S. BROWN 27 farmer $800 $335 b. NY
Phebe J. 22 B. MI
Willard 2
Luther 2/12
306/309 Thomas J. PIERCE 33
Nancy 22
307/310 George R. SLATER 22 day laborer b. OH $800 $320 b. OH
Mary A. SANDERSON 19 b. MI
Julia 14 b. MI
Jane 12
Lucinda 9
Hannah M. 2
308/311 Samuel RETON 50 farmer 500 437 b. NJ
Sarah 42 b. PA
Alice 18 b. NJ
William 15 b. PA
Harriet COYSTER 12 b. IA
Daniel Reton 7 b. PA
Samuel R. 4 b. MI
Reynolds 1 b. MI
Anna MERRILL 20 b. IA
Charles 7/12 b. MI
309/312 Thomas RETON 52 1000 320 b. NY
Esther 38 b. CT
Elizabeth 10 b. NY
Eugene HOWARD 14
310/313 James A NOYS 33 farmer $1200 b. MI
Carrie A. 25 b. VT
311/314 Henry BILLINGS 28 day laborer $25 b. NY
Margaret 18 b. IA
Lewis 7/12 b. NY
312/315 Joseph MERRITT 57 $1000 $310 b. MA
Lury B. 51 b. VT
Nelson H. 27 b. NY
Hester A. 23
Almena A. (?) 14
Charles D. 3 b. MI
313/316 James PRESTON 33 $600 300 b. NY
Lucy E. 28 b. OH
Herbert S.2 b.MI<

• Occupation: Farmer, 1860.

• Property: $1200, 1860.

• Child’s Birth: Emma Viola is born., 15 Dec 1860.

• Child’s Birth: Cora Rachel is born., 19 Apr 1863.

• Father’s Death, 26 Aug 1864. Jame’s father dies when he is 37.

• Child’s Birth: Victor Hugo is born., 20 Aug 1865.

• Child’s Birth: Allen Marble is born., 30 Oct 1867.

James Allan Noyes and John Humphrey Noyes were only 4th cousins, but John Humphrey Noyes’ sister Elizabeth F. had moved from Putney to to Kalamazoo, Michigan with her husband Fletcher Ransom and his brother Roswell Ransom is known to have been a member of Alphadelphia.

• Child’s Birth: Paul is born., 24 Nov 1869.

• Census: Pg. 388, 1870, Illinois, Union County, Anna.

Page: 388
Roll: M593_284
Image: 33
Page No. 32 (given on census sheet)
Enumerated 18 of June
14 248/239 NOYES, J. Andrew 45 mw Farmer $3000 $250 b. MI
15 C. Ammanda 35 fw House Keeper b. VT
16 E. Violetta 8 fw b. MI attended school
17 C. Rebecca 7 fw b. MI attended school
18 V. Henry 4 mw b. IL
19 A. Monroe 3 mw b. IL
20 Patric 1/12 b. IL
21-26 249/240 Household of Davis CALVIN 47 and Mary V., he of IL and she of AR
27-31 250/241 Household of R. Henry CALVIN and Clarissa, he of VA, she of NC.
32 251/242 HARMAN Asa 40 mw Farmer $2000 $200 b. VT
33 Susan 39 fw House Keeper b. NY
34 O. Ephriam 15 mw b. MI
35 N. Edward 6 mw b. MI Can’t write
COMMENT: What happened here? Did the census taker just record initials and then reenter the information and make up names while doing so? The J. Andrew NOYES household is that of James Allen NOYES and the children should read Emma Viola, Cora Rachel, Victor Hugo, Allen Marble, and Paul. The children in the Asa HARMON household are Orrin Ellie and Edgar. The “Susan” as Asa’s wife is probably Lucy as in the 1880 census.

• Half-sibling’s Death: George W. Noyes died at 30., 3 Mar 1871.

• Child’s Birth: Ray is born., 4 Jan 1874. Ray will marry Elizabeth BREWER. DIRECT LINE

• Half-sibling’s Death: Minerva dies at the age of 23., 4 Sep 1874.

• Half-sibling’s Death: Lunetta dies., 25 Mar 1878.

• Census: Pg. 25B, 1880, Illinois, Union County, Anna.

Year: 1880; Census Place: Anna, Union, Illinois; Roll: T9_254; Family History Film: 1254254; Page: 25B; Enumeration District: 113; Image: 0207
Enumerated 36 and 28 of June by Joseph Levey
33 337/369 HARMON Asa wm 52 md Farmer b. VT parents b. VT
34 Lucy wf Wife 51 md Keeping House can’t write b. OH parents b. NY
35 Edgar wm Son 15 MI father b. VT mother b. OH
36 Almina sister 54 unable to read or write VT parents b. VT
37 Ida LEE wf19 Boarding sg b. IL parents b. IL
38 Charles LEE 16 wm Boarding sg Laborer IL parents b. IL
39 338/370 NOYES J. A. wm 53 md. Farmer b. MI father b. MA mother b. NY
40 Caroline wf 44 Keeing house b. VT parents b. MA
41 Cora wf 17 Daughter sg b. MI father b. MI mother b. VT
42 Victor wm 14 sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
43 Allen wm 12 sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
44 Paul wm 10 sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
45 Ray wm 6 sg sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
46 338/371 HARMON Orin wm 25 Son-in-law md Farmer b. MI father b. VT mother b. (VT written over Ohio or vice versa)
47 E. Viola wf 19 Daughter md. Farmer b. MI father b. MI mother b. VT
48 Chloe DAVIS wf 70 wd keeping house unable to read or write b. NC father b. NC mother b. VA
COMMENT: Chloe DAVIS looks like she was inadvertantly placed in the Orin HARMON household, as 338/372 continues with daughters of Chloe’s. Viola and her husband Orin HARMON reside in the J. A. NOYES’ household. There don’t appear to be other Michigan families nearby.

• Occupation: Farming, 1880.

• October 26, 1880, plat of Liberal is made by George Walser.

• January 1, 1881, Oneida Perfectionists Community disbands.

• October 7, 1881, Noyes Deed, Missouri, Barton County, Liberal.

Though the family is not given as migrating until 1882, a land deed records James NOYES of Barton County Missouri, 7 October 1881. It may be that he went first to Missouri where Liberal was in the process of being founded, and brought his family down later. We have the record of Caroline’s trip which gives that migration as 9 August 1882.


The reason for the move to Liberal was that it was to be a Free-Thinkers town. O. E. HARMON, son-in-law of James Allen NOYES, wrote a history of the town., The Story of Liberal, Missouri,which was published in 1925 by the Liberal News.


The text on the plat pretty much says it all:

Liberal has now such an impetus that it can smile at the combined powers of priest, preacher, church, ignorance and hell. It is the only town in the United States set apart for Liberalism alone, and the only town of its size in the WORLD without a priest, preacher, church, saloon, God or hell; and they are the happiest and purest people on earth. The only fit home for liberally disposed persons. Liberal is a good country, rich in all the needs of life usually found in good countires. Address,
Liberal, Barton County, MO.

• November 7, 1881, Liberal is incorporated as a town.

• Migration, 9 Aug 1882, Missouri, Barton County. Departed Anna IL for Barton Co. MO on this day. The trip of about 300 miles took nearly three weeks. Caroline kept a diary for nine days.

• Accessory Document: Noyes Family Constitution, Cir 1883.

• Child’s Death: Victor Hugo dies of Yellow Fever., 23 Oct 1886.

• Child’s Death: Cora Rachel dies in childbirth., 15 Oct 1887.

• Half-sibling’s Death: Franklin NOYES dies at the age of 43., 28 Jul 1891.

• Wife’s Death: Caroline dies at 58. , 18 Apr 1894. Caroline and James had been married 34 years.

• Census: Pg. 20A, 1900, Missouri, Barton County, Central Township.

Sheet No. 3
Supervisor District 13
Enumeration District 18
5 June enumeration by David E. Harpole
( page 5)
Preceding households appear to be John RHINE, Thomas WILLIAMS, James HANSHAW, John SMITH and Charles DURHAM.
20 48/49 HARMON O. E. Head wm Dec 1854 age 45 married 21 yrs. b. Michigan F-Vermont M-New York Farmer 0 can read and write, 0 months unemployed, F F 50
21 E. Viola Wife wf Dec 1860 39 md 21 yrs, 1 child 0 living, b-Michigan F-Michigan M-Vermont can read and write
22 Robert adopted son wm Oct 1887 12 sg. b-Missouri F-Penn M-Michigan Farmer 9 months unemployed, can read and write
23-29 49/50 Frank and Nancy STONE household Farmer
30 59/51 William H. GRIVET household Farmer
31-33 51/52 Newton WINNER household Farmer
34 52/53 NOYES Ray Head wm Jan 1875 25 married 6 years b. Illinois f-Michigan m-Vermont Farmer can read and write O F F 54
35 Bettie Wife wf July 1877 22, 2 children 2 living, b- Missouri parents-Illinois, can read and write
36 Pansy Daughter wf Dec. 1895 4 sg b. Missouri f-Illinois m-Missouri
37 Cora Daughter wf Sept 1896 3 sg b. Missouri f-Illinois m-Missouri
38 James A Father wm Dec 1824 75 Wd b. Michigan Parents-NY can read and write
39 53/54 JACKMAN Henry Feb 1849 51 married 21 years b. Penn parents-Penn
40 Mabel March 1863 37 5 children, 3 living b. Michigan F-Michigan M-Rhode Island
41 Hiram July 1881 18 b. Missouri
42 Amy May 1880 20 b. Missouri
43 Benton Oct 1891 9 b. Missouri
44 54/55 BECKMAN George April 1866 34 married 7 years b. New York F-Prussia M-Germany
45 Emma 1871 28 2 children 2 living b. Indiana parents-Indiana
46 Harold 1894 5 b. Missouri
47 Basil 1897 3 b. Missouri
48 55/56 NOYES Paul Head wm Nov 1869 30 married 9 years b. Illinois F-Michigan M-Vermont Farmer o months unemployed, can read and write, O F F 57
49 Edna Wife wf Dec 1872 27, md 9 years, 3 children, 3 living b. Missouri parents-Illinois Can read and write
50 Grace Daughter wf Mar 1892 8 b. Missouri f-Missouri m-Illinois
Pg. 21B
51 Ormil Daughter wf May 1893 7 sg wf b. Oklahoma Ter. f-IL m-IL did not attend school
52 Garrett Son wm Dec. 1896 3 b. Oklahoma Ter f-IL m-IL
Following households are STEVENSON, FOOTE Virginia, WILSON, JACKSON Louis, JACKMAN Allen, STRICKLAND Julia and son Lemuel, MOHLER James, JACKMAN A. M. , JONES William, Viola, Iva and Eva and Marcus, CHESTER Hiram and Permelia, BARNES E. J. and STACY William.and Permelia, BARNES E. J. and STACY William.