Noyes Burials at Liberal City Cemetery

At Find-a-Grave, an individual has placed up memorials for Liberal City Cemetery, including members of the Noyes family. There are (sadly) no photos, just names and inscriptions on the headstones. The person must not have been a member of the family as family members are unlinked. I’ve sent a request for them to be linked, but I’ve not heard back yet.

The family members who are there:

Cora Rachel Greene, daughter of James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell. She is currently listed as Cora B. Greene. I’ve asked for a correction on that. Cora married Frank Greene. He’s not listed at Find-a-Grave and I don’t know what happened to him after Cora died.

Emma Viola Noyes Harmon daughter of James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell. She married Orrin Ellie Harmon.

Orrin Elliot Harmon, husband of Emma Viola Noyes.

Elizabeth “Bettie” Jane Noyes wife of Ray Noyes, son of James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell.

Caroline Atwell Noyes wife of James Allen Noyes, daughter of Hiram Atwell and Rachel Scagel. I also have a tombstone image here.

James William Noyes, son of Ray James Noyes and Eula Millard, grandson of Ray Noyes and Elizabeth Jane “Bettie” Brewer

James Allen Noyes son of James Noyes and Sally Marble, husband of Caroline Atwell. I also have a tombstone image here.

Luella E. Bunton Noyes wife of James Noyes, son of Ray James Noyes and Eula Millard, grandson of Ray Noyes and Elizabeth Jane “Bettie” Brewer

Ray Noyes, son of James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell, husband of Elizabeth Jane “Bettie” Brewer

Victor Hugo Noyes, son of James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell

Notes on Caroline Atwell Noyes’ Family by Pansy Noyes Bryant

Courtesy of Nancy Benton.

Caroline Atwell (born Oct. 2, 1835) told her oldest daughter Emma Viola Noyes Harmon many interesting things of her life in Vermont. Her mother was Rachel Scagel and was apparently brought up above ordinary rank. An old copy of Goldsmith’s “Vicar of Wakefield” is still in Mrs. Harmon’s possession and it belonged to Rachel Scagel in the days when books were scarce. (Note: This book “Vicar of Wakefield” is in the possession of Pansy Noyes Bryant, great granddaughter of Rachel Scagel, at the present time, 1960). Caroline Atwell always wore wool clothing in her younger days–petticoats, aprons, dresses, underwear, and even stockings were spun at home. She always believed wool was conducive to health. Note: (by granddaughter Pansy Noyes Bryant) So strong was her opinion about wool that my father insisted his first baby’s dress and petticoats were pure wool and I have in my possession a wool blanket in which all my grandmother’s children, my father’s children and my first child was wrapped in birth.

She was a believer in many of the health fads of the day. Always took a daily cold bath even tho she had to break the ice to do so. She took long walks and encouraged her children to do so. Caroline was raised in the days of hoop skirts, corsets, etc., but she was a believer in sensible clothing for women and refused to wear corsets all her life. Vermonters were famous for their apple butter and her mother was one of the best at this art. Much of it was sold in Boston–days being consumed in this journey of taking produce to market and then bringing back goods for the family.

Family of Hiram Atwell and Rachel Sacgel Atwell taken from family bible now in possession of Ray Noyrs (1918) a grandson.

Hiram Atwell–born Mar. 2, 1801 Johnson Vt.–died Dec. 2, 1849 Waterbury, Center, Vt. buried in cemetery there.
Rachel Scagel–born April 15, 1802 Waterbury Vt.–died April 17, 1843 Waterbury Center Vt. buried in cemetery there.

Married Waterbury Vt. Oct. 7, 1830

Their children

1 Hiram Scagel Atwell–born May 5, 1832
2 Sarah Ann Lydia Atwell–born Apr. 18, 1834
3 Caroline Atwell–born Oct 2, 1835
4 Francis Awell–born Apr. 11, 1843

Marriages of these children
1 Sarah Ann Lydia to N. W. Gilbert in Waterbury Mar. 7, 1852
2 Caroline Atwell to James A. Noyes in Bradyvillage, Kalamazoo Co. Mich. June 28, 1859

Deaths in this family
1 Hiram, son, died July 23, 1843
2 Rachel, wife, died in childbirth, April 17, 1843
3 Francis, son, died Apr. 20, 1843
4 Hiram, father, died Dec. 2, 1849
5 Sarah Ann Lydia Gilbert, daughter, died in Boston, Mass. Jan 3, 1844 [should be 1877] . Her body was buried in Northfield Vt.
6 Caroline Atwell Noyes died Apr. 18, 1894 near Liberal, Mo. Buried in City Cemetery there.

Rachel Scagel Atwell died in childbirth, the baby Francis dying a few days later. An older child Hiram took some medicine intended for his mother and this caused his death later.

Hiram Atwell after his wife died in 1843 kept the home together for his young daughters. When the gold rush started for California in 1849, he decided to go. He sold off his stock all except some younger animals that he was going to take to his father’s home in Johnson Vt. about fifteen miles away. It was a warm sunny morning when he started to drive those calves down the road to his fathers. Along in the forenoon it became very cold so Hiram stopped at a house and procured an overcoat to keep him warm. The storm grew worse and the next morning when he did not appear at his father’s house they started in search of him. He was found frozen to death with the calves all huddled around him.

Sarah Atwell Gilbert married a dentist and they were living in Boston when she died. They were quite wealthy but never had any children. Note: I have several pictures of great aunt Sarah Gilbert–also the last letter she wrote to her sister Caroline (my grandmother) in my possession. (Pansy Noyes Bryant 1953)

Caroline Atwell after her father’s death was sent to an aunt in New Berlin, Ohio. Here she met James Allen Noyes, whom she married in 1859. She always told her children she was a cousin of President Franklin Pierce.

Cora Rachel Noyes Greene


Original photo of Cora


Rethouched


Tinted

Cora, daughter of James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell, was born 19 April 1863, at “1 and 1/4 oclock” in Wakishma, Michigan. She married Frank GREEN, 30 March 1886, at the age of 23, in Junction, Kansas. She died in childbirth, 16 Oct 1887.

Cora died in childbirth. Her son, Robert, was adopted by Cora’s sister, Emma Viola.
SOURCE: Pansy Noyes Pinkerton’s Noyes Family Record (made early to middle 1900’s and augmented by Nancy Benton).

From a couple of surviving letters, we have bits of information about Cora. In 1883 she had been working in a printing shop but lost the job, which is known from a letter her brother, Victor, wrote her in December.

A letter in August of 1885 from Victor to Cora informs us that Cora was interested in spiritualism.

In 1886, Cora married Frank Green. Envelopes, but not letters, from their correspondence survived, the letters perhaps destroyed when the family purged anything about which they were worried during the McCarthy years.

K of L(?) Section, Beloit, KS (Postmark–unreadable, KS)
Transient, Lincoln, NE (Postmark–Liberal, MO)
Care U.P. Engineer Corps, Hutchison, KS (Postmark–McPherson, KS)
Omaha, NE (Postmark–Liberal, MO–from Allen Noyes)
Occidental Hotel, Omaha, NE (Postmark–Liberal, MO)
Editor Resident, Wichita, KS (Postmark–Junction City, KS)
Transient, Chester, NE (Return Address–Green & Co., 211 S. 13th Street, Lincoln, NE)
“Hon” Frank Greene, State Convention Anti-Monopoly, Topeka, KS (Postmark–Wichita, KS)

I cannot make out the date on the last one, but apparently he was a state representative if he was addressed as “Hon”. Also possible he was working for the Union Pacific as an engineer.

The “editor resident” must have been for the Evening News in Wichita. There are two letters to Cora in the same handwriting in envelopes with that return address, written in the same hand, one to Liberal in 1887 and one to Junction City, KS, (no date). The same handwriting on a plain envelope addressed to her in McPherson, KS (no date).

SOURCE: Nancy Benton 2 May 2003

I don’t find any Frank GREEN who was a State Representative for the Anti-Monopoly party which was in the process of winding down at that point. He would likely have been at the Anti-Monopolist convention held at Topeka, Shawnee, Kansas on August 25 1886. I read the convention made no nominations for executive offices but delegates were instructed to work for the election of such candidates as would pledge themselves to secure the adoption of all the measures for the relief of labor and the great producing class that were in harmony with the AntiMonopolist, Greenback, and Knights of Labor declaration of principles.

Cora apparently went on the road with Frank, only envelopes surviving from letters written to her mother, Caroline.

Envelopes to Carrie, apparently from Cora, from Wichita, Mcpherson, Omaha, Lincoln, and one in an envelope with return of McPherson Steam Laundry in Wichita. Wonder if Cora worked there at one time? One dated Apr 14, 1893 from Scranton, PA, has a note on one side “Containing Frank Greene’s death…
SOURCE: Nancy Benton 2 May 2003

A note written by Carrie on a dream which seemed to become a premonition, was saved by the family. The seeming premonition was of Cora’s death in 1887.

Other posts have information on Robert Harmon who was taken in by Cora’s sister, Viola, and her husband.

I’ve yet to find the family of Frank Greene, who seemingly died before April 14 1893.

Noyes Family Constitution

Being Free-thinkers who had been associated with socialist experiments and who had moved to Liberal, Missouri, which was expressly for liberals, it’s not surprising that the Noyes family would form their own family constitution.

The document displays the year as being 283.

The Dictionary of Missouri Biography notes that Liberal was utilizing a different dating system, one that was based on 1600 A. D., the year Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake by the Roman Catholic Church for his astronomical and pantheistic beliefs, becoming known subsequently as a martyr for science. “Thus, the year 1883, using their system, was called E of M 283 or Era of Man 283. Such a dating system had been recommended by the National Liberal League.”

Nancy Benton sent me the document. Below is a transcription and images.

* * * * *

NOYES FAMILY CONSTITUTION

Liberal, Mo. February 10th 283.

We the undersigned agreed to join together in a Society which shall be based upon and regulated by the following

CONSTITUTION:

1. The Name of the Society shall be Home-Circle.

2. Every member shall enjoy all the rights and priviledges which all others would claim for themselves; namely: every body shall have an opinion and views of his own upon all subjects and questions but shall always listen carefully to the suggestions and examine the ideas of others; perhaps, is he wrong and the rest right.

3. No oppression, forse, quarrel or fighting shall be practiced by any of the members, neither inside nor outside of the Circle.

4. Everybody shall be fully independent of all the others; provided that his actions and conduct are not in the way of anybody.

5. Nobody shall dictate or prohibit anything to anybody else, unless he is directly concerned in the business.

6. Whereas it is universally acknowledged that all what breathes, feels pain and joy as well as human beings, — Resolved : that it be the duty of every member of the Order not to torture or to cause any sufferings to any living beings, unless it be for self-defence or protection of personal property.

7. Let it be the desire of every member to help all others and try to make them pleasant and comfortable; but at the same time remind those, who involuntarily may commit somethings wrong, to better themselves. Such remarks shall be made privately and in a mild manner.

8. The Meetings of the Home-Circle will take place when the members will find it best.

9. The Officers of the society shall contain: a President, Secretary and Treasurer; They shall be reelected every 4 Weeks.

10. The Venerable Members of the Circle shall be honored and respected by the whole Membership.

11. The Secretary shall keep a brief and full record of all the proceedings of the Meetings and report everyone of them at the next meeting.

12. Any Law or Regulation may be added to this Constitution, according to the will of the members.

13. Every Member shall try to observe and practice the principles of the Constitution as strict as possible.

Carrie A. Noyes
J. A. Noyes
Cora R. Noyes
V. H. Noyes
A. M. Noyes
Paul Noyes
Ray Noyes
Viola Harmon
Sam Wegler, Secretary



* * * * *

The document reveals the thoughtful respect, dignity, empathy, and compassion family members expected to be displayed by another both in and outside the home, and the allowance of perhaps an unusual degree of independence as well. Quite a different arrangement from the utopian experiment conducted by their relation John Humphrey Noyes of Oneida fame.

We see all the children were present to apply their signatures, including the eldest daughter Emma Viola Harmon, who had moved to Chehalis in Washington State with her husband, but was apparently visiting.

Sam Wegler is given as secretary for this meeting. I have examined several censuses and can’t begin to place who this individual may have been.

CAROLINE ATWELL NOYES’ DIARY OF TRIP FROM ANNA, IL TO LIBERAL, MO IN AUGUST 1882

In August of 1882, James Allen Noyes and wife Caroline Atwell, set out from their home in Anna, Union, Illinois for their new home in Liberal, Barton, Missouri, a town founded by George H. Walser in 1880 and intended for freethinkers, “no priest, preachers, saloon, God, or Hell” welcome. With Caroline and James would have been their children Cora, Victor, Allen, Paul and Ray who was then only 8. Emma, the eldest, had married Orrin Harmon in 1878 in Anna, Illinois and they, too, would eventually settle in Liberal but weren’t part of the migration. About 1882 they moved to Lewis County in Washington State, along with Orrin Harmon’s father, which would mean the family was entirely out of Anna, Illinois.

James Allen Noyes was 56 at the time of the move and Caroline was about 47. They likely believed that their final home would be in this liberal, free-thinking community–and it was their final home but only remained a free-thinking haven for a while.

The trip of about 300 miles took nearly three weeks; however, Caroline’s diary entries ended on the ninth day. Caroline is spare on details and stories, but she does give a number of towns that they stopped at so we’re able to trace their route for the first half of their journey.

A Hiram and a Harry are mentioned and I’ve no idea who these individuals might have been. Caroline had a first cousin (he was also a second cousin twice over) named Hiram Scagel, a son of her uncle George Scagel and aunt Deborah Hunkins Scagel. She had stayed with her uncle and aunt for a time in New Berlin, Waukesha, Wisconsin. Hiram was born in 1823 and was out of his parents’ household by the 1850s. The Scagel name is spelled a number of crazy ways in the censuses and I’ve been unable to locate him, and actually have no idea if he even lived to adulthood. I imagine it is another Hiram to whom Caroline is referring here, but who knows. Perhaps it was Hiram Scagel.

* * * * *

CAROLINE ATWELL NOYES’ DIARY OF TRIP FROM ANNA, IL TO LIBERAL, MO IN AUGUST 1882

August 9, 1882 – Left home at 9 o’clock. The horses in the big wagon were frightened at wagon cover and began to run when they started. Hiram held them and stopped them before we got to Mr. Harmon’s gate. I walked to Jonesboro, stopped at courthouse for important paper. Got started at 2 afternoon. Camped at night on the bank of Mississippi River ten miles north of Cape.


View Larger Map
From Anna, Illinois to Cape Giradeau, Missouri

August 10 – Started at 7 A.M. and reached the ferry at 11 A.M. Crossed alright. Camped for dinner in a little grove of trees by a stream of water. Got started half past 2 P.M. Camped just beyond Jackson just before dark. Spread carpet on ground and made beds for four. Made up bed in big wagon for Mr. Noyes and Paul and in the small one for Cora and myself. The boys kept guard all night. Had a good fire and kept the lantern lamp burning.


View Larger Map
From Cape Giradeau, Missouri to Jackson, Missouri

August 11 – Got started early. A pleasant day but cool enough so I have worn waterproof cloak all the afternoon. We are camped at noon on the bank of a clear beautiful stream of water. Camped about sundown in a nice grove of timber near a small stream of water. Cora got a good supper fried potatoes and corn cakes. Everybody went to bed and all rested well and did not guard horses. Hiram cut a small tree and wove it in other small trees and made it an excellent tying place.

Friday – Got started early and got along very well. Country rough and stony. Came over a long ridge that had wild timber land. There were many wild flowers, some pretty enough for ornamental gardens. Harry shot one rabbit and one of our boys caught one fish. Did not come to water at noon so drove till between one and two when we came to a nice creek. Camped a little after sundown near a dwelling house and the road was fenced but the boys managed to gather wood and we were quite comfortable. Kept guard all night.


View Larger Map
From Jackson, Missouri to Farmington, Missouri

August 12 – We started at seven. Drove four miles to Farmington, a town of two thousand inhabitants two miles from the Iron Mountain Railroad. The country around it is very good and we were told was worth $30 to $50 per acre. We bought supplies at Farmington. Have passed thru two toll gates and one covered bridge, quite a number not covered. The road is gravelled and mostly level. A few high hills and a great deal of rock. We passed through Iron Mountain town the middle of the afternoon. Camped a half mile east of Bell View. Did not get supper ready till after dark and washed dishes by lamplight.


View Larger Map
From Farmington, Missouri to Belleview, Missouri

Sunday 13th – Rested till noon. Then started. Drove 10 miles over a rough wild country. Plenty of wood and water where we camped but horseflies and sand ticks were very bad.

14th – Started about seven. Drove thru a wild hilly country, did not come to water at noon but stopped and got one pail of water for the folks and fed the horses. We ate our dinner without making fire, then drove on a mile and a half when we came to water and watered the horses. Late in the afternoon we came to a country store. Bought supplies. A little before sundown we came to Turnback Hill and camped.

15 Aug – A slight shower in the night. The boys gathered their bedclothes from the ground and threw it in the wagon. We passed over Turnback Hill without difficulty. It has rained during the forenoon part of the time but we kept on. The country is rough and wild. Stopped at noon. Fed the horses and ate our dinner of canned blackberries and crackers. Sprinkled a little in the afternoon but cleared off and the sun shone and it was quite warm. Camped a little before sundown near a stream of water one mile east of Salem.


View Larger Map
From Belleview, Missouri to Salem, Missouri

Aug 16 – It rained last night before we got our supper ready and we got in the big wagon and ate it, but the rain got in both wagons and wet our bedding and things. We all slept in the wagons. I lay in the wet all night. The sun shines bright this morning. They have packed the wet things and we are about starting.

17 – Drove till sundown thru a new country, hardly any houses and those mostly tiny log ones. The roads…


View Larger Map
How Google plots a trip from Anna, Illinois to Liberal, Missouri

* * * * *

The diary, which was sent to me by Nancy Benton, ended mid sentence. Whether Caroline didn’t finish the diary or the rest of it was destroyed when the Noyes burned their papers during the McCarthy scare in the 1950s, I don’t know, but it’s an unsatisfying conclusion, isn’t it. One feels left hanging, however bare the story is of personal reflection. And there’s no going to the source to ask what happened.

In later years Caroline told her granddaughter, Pansy, the story that one of the men with them realized, the second or third day out, that he had left his rifle leaning against a tree the night before. Because he felt he needed the rifle to survive, he left his family with the rest of the group and rode his horse back to the former night’s campsite to get the gun. He told them that he would catch up with them later. He was never heard from again.

Did he really forget his rifle or did he conveniently leave it behind? Was he killed or (more likely) did he abandon his family? I’m assuming this other family was one who moved with the Noyes from Anna to Liberal, and thus arrived in Liberal without a male head of household. Or did they eventually quit the journey and return to look for him? The tale caused me to try to reason what the options would have been for a mother and her children, during that day and age, when on a long journey and the husband disappears. If they were traveling with friends and family would she have left them or continued on, thinking that when she reached her destination and was settled she could then hope to search for her husband? Would she have felt secure enough to leave her party and return to the town nearest her husband’s disappearance and wait for him? If she did that, how long might she have to wait and on what money would she survive? How would she then get to her destination, where she and her husband had likely already purchased land?

Somewhere out there is a family with a story of an ancestor who disappeared during a journey, in 1882, across Missouri to a new home. It’s to be wondered if they’ve by now found him in the census living his new life in wherever he eventually turned up.

PANSY NOYES BRYANT ON THE MARAIS DES CYGNES MASSACRE

Pansy Noyes Bryant recorded the family’s connection with Marais Des Cygnes Massacre.

First, a few introductory notes from me. On May 19 1858, Charles Hamilton–who had arrived from Georgia in 1855 with the determination of making certain Kansas would enter the Union as a slave state–with some 30 Pro-slavery Missourians from the neighborhood of West Point, Missouri, set out to Trading Post, Linn County, Kansas where they proceeded to “arrest” Free State settlers. Just what this means that Hamilton and company “arrested” these men, and how they had any authority to do so, I’ve no idea. Such basic points that history takes for granted only baffle me. I read Charles Hamilton had also settled in Kansas and been run out. Elsewhere I’ve read that many of the men were former neighbors of Hamilton’s who didn’t imagine he’d do them any harm. I’m supposing they had been neighbors in Kansas–and if they believed Charles Hamilton wouldn’t do them any harm then they had sorrily misread his character.

Placing the so-called “arrested” in a wagon, they started for the Missouri line, and after about three miles met with others with more Free State prisoners. These 11 men were lined up facing a ravine and shot down. I read that after they were shot, Hamilton got up close with a pistol to finish them off executioner style. John F. Campbell, William Colpetzer, Michael Robinson, Patrick Ross and William Stillwell were killed. William Hargrove and brother Asa Hargrove, Rev. Benjamin Reed, Charles Snyder and Amos Hall were wounded. Austin Hall, brother of Amos, dropped with the others and feigned being dead. That Austin (who was then sun blind) got away with this paints a picture of the bloodiness of the scene. He was likely so covered in it that he appeared to be deathly wounded.

This incident is given as a key one in deciding Kansas’ decision toward being a free or slave state.

Only one man was arrested that year but escaped. In 1863, another was arrested, tried and executed, a William Griffith of Bates County, Missouri. He had been identified by William Hargove in Platte County, Missouri, was taken into custody and returned to Linn County, Kansas where, it’s said, William Hargrove was granted the duty of performing as his hangman.

Charles A. Hamilton returned to Georgia.

These thirty odd men had performed their deed openly and it was known who they were. Yet, if you search around the web, though you’ll repeatedly find the names of the victims, the identities of the other assailants are never revealed. I’ve read that Stillwell was a mason and, some of the assailants being masons, he gave the mason’s sign of distress to no avail. The names of the murderers are perhaps preserved in documents of the time, but I’ve a feeling that they were likely not broadcast and haven’t made it into the history books.

Despite Charles Hamilton’s notoriety, exactly who he was and how he subsequently lived seems also to not merit much attention, which is particularly odd.


From the web, the Marais des Cygnes Massacre,
as portrayed in A. D. Richardson’s “Beyond the Mississippi” (1867)

Pansy’s below story comes to us courtesy of Nancy Benton.

* * * * *

The Marias des Cygne Massacre

Linn County Kansas near Trading Post

by Pansy Noyes Bryant

My great grandfather Hiram Atwell had a sister Olive (born Mar. 21, 1808) who married a man named Clarke Fiske of Eden VT. They had a daughter Caroline Fiske who married Austin Wilbur Hall of Trading Post, Kansas. Caroline Fiske and my grandmother Caroline Atwell Noyes were cousins. They visited each other when they came to Kansas and Missouri to live.

Carolin Fiske Hall once brought my grandmother a gift of a paisley shawl. At my grandmother’s death this shawl was given to my aunt Viola Noyes Harmon and she in turn passed it on to her adopted son and also nephew Robert Harmon.

Austin and Amos Hall came from Eden VT. in 1857 to West point Landing. They were without money and walked to Trading Post Kansas that looked much more promising than Kansas City did at that time.

The bright sun and glare on the tall prairie grass caused Austin to develop a very severe case of sore eyes and he was unable to see any distance.

During the next winter the border warfare over slavery grew very bitter. Most of those on the Kansas side were “Free Staters” and ruffians from the Mo side kept stirring up trouble.

On May 19 1858 a man named Hamilton with 32 men came over near Trading Post and gathered eleven men and took them to a ravine east of town and had the 32 men standing on each side of the slope and shoot the eleven men down like dogs. Amos and Austin Hall were among the 11 men. Austin was driving a team of oxen from the forge and could have gotten away except the sore eyes kept him from seeing the enemy as they came toward him.

Most of the men were killed instantly, but Austin Hall did not get hurt at all. He feigned death and dropped with the man in front of him. The ruffians came down and kicked the victims to be sure they were dead. Austin Hall stayed perfectly still and was declared dead.

As soon as they left Austin went for help. He met a woman who had seen the men led away and had hitched up a ox team to a wagon filled with bedding and water.

Soon after this massacre Austin Hall went back to Eden VT. to have treatment for his eyes. He was very slow recovering his sight and did not return to Kansas until April 14, 1865.

He married Carolin Fiske Nov. 28, 1869 and to this union were born Amos Homer, Carlton Fisk and John Austin Hall. All live fairly close to their old home and are very prosperous.

Austin W. Hall and Caroline Hall are buried in the same cemetery where a monument is erected to the Marais des Cygne Massacre.

* * * * *

In 1982, the Ft. Scott Tribune reported on May 28:

50 YEARS AGO
(1932)

The death today of John A. Hall of Pleasanton serves to bring attention the part the Hall family has played in Linn County history. Austin W. Hall, father of the Pleasanton attorney, came to Kansas in 1857 and established his home two miles east of Trading Post. At that time Kansas was the center of border warfare and Austin Hall, together with his brother, Amos C. Hall, was one of the settlers captured by Charles Hamilton, the notorious perpetrator of the Marais des Cygne massacre on May 19, 1859. The Hamilton gang gathered up eleven settlers around Trading Post, lined them up and shot them. By a miracle, Austin Hall escaped unscathed when the volley was fired, but quick thinking induced him to fall to the ground and feign death. He was left unmolested. His brother was severely injured by recovered from his wounds.

The massacre was memorialized by the poet, John Greenleaf Whittier:

“Le Marais du Cygne”
By John Greenleaf Whittier

A BLUSH as of roses
Where rose never grew!
Great drops on the bunch-grass,
But not of the dew!
A taint in the sweet air
For wild bees to shun!
A stain that shall never
Bleach out in the sun!

Back, steed of the prairies!
Sweet song-bird, fly back!
Wheel hither, bald vulture!
Gray wolf, call thy pack!
The foul human vultures
Have feasted and fled;
The wolves of the Border
Have crept from the dead

Not in vain on the dial
The shade moves along
To point the great contrasts
Of right and wrong;
Free homes and free altars
And fields of ripe food;
The reeds of the Swan’s Marsh,
Whose bloom is of blood.

On the lintels of Kansas
That blood shall not dry;
Henceforth the Bad Angel
Shall harmless go by;
Henceforth to the sunset,
Unchecked on her way,
Shall Liberty follow
The march of the day.

Controversial abolitionist, John Brown, toward the end of June built a small, two-story log fort a couple of hundred yards from the massacre, the intention being to aid in the defense of free-soil citizens against such violence.

The massacre prompted the following, written by John Brown on January 13, 1859.

John Brown’s “Parallels”
Lawrence Republican, January 13, 1859

Trading Post, Kansas, Jan., 1859

Gents:–You will greatly oblige a humble friend, by allowing the use of your columns, while I briefly state two parallels, in my poor way.

Not one year ago, eleven quiet citizens of this neighborhood, viz.: Wm. Robertson, Wm. Colpetzer, Amos Hall, Austin Hall, John Campbell, Asa Snyder, Thos. Stilwell, Wm. Hairgrove, Asa Hairgrove, Patrick Ross, and B.L. Reed, were gathered up from their work and their homes, by an armed forced (sic) under one Hamilton, and without trial or opportunity to speak in their own defence, were formed into a line, and all but one shot–five killed and five wounded. One fell unharmed, pretending to be dead. All were left for dead. The only crime charged against them was that of being Free-State men. Now, I inquire, what action has ever, since the occurrence in May last, been taken by either the President of the United States, the Governor of Missouri, the Governor of Kansas, or any of their tools, or by any pro-slavery or Administration man, to ferret out and punish the perpetrators of this crime?

Now for the other parallel. On Sunday, the 19th of December, a Negro man called Jim, came over to the Osage settlement, from Missouri, and stated that he, together with his wife, two children, and another Negro man were to be sold within a day or two, and begged for help to get away. On Monday (the following) night, two small companies were made up to go to Missouri and forcibly liberate the five slaves, together with other slaves. One of these companies I assumed to direct. We proceeded to the place, surrounded the buildings, liberated the slaves, and also took certain property supposed to belong to the estate.

We however learned, before leaving, that a portion of the articles we had taken belonged to a man living on the plantation as a tenant, and who was supposed to have no interest in the estate. We promptly returned to him all we had taken. We then went to another plantation, where we freed five more slaves, took some property, and two white men. We moved all slowly away into the Territory for some distance, and then sent the white men back, telling them to follow us as soon as they chose to do so. The other company freed one female slave, took some property, and, as I am informed, killed one white man (the master) who fought against the liberation.

Now for a comparison. Eleven persons are forcibly restored to their natural and inalienable rights, with but one man killed, and all “hell is stirred, from beneath.” It is currently reported that the Governor of Missouri has made a requisition upon the Governor of Kansas for the delivery of all such as were concerned in the last named “dreadful outrage.” The Marshal of Kansas is said to be collecting a posse of Missouri (not Kansas) men, at West Point, in Missouri, a little town about ten miles distant, to “enforce the laws.” All pro-slavery, conservative Free-State and doughface men , and Administration tools, are filled with holy horror.

Consider the two cases, and the action of the Administration party.

Respectfully Yours,

John Brown

John Brown would be dead within the year. In October he led the Harpers Ferry Armory raid in which he and his eighteen men had been hopeful of freeing the slaves of that Virginia town and progressing then South, freeing other slaves along the way. The effort ending in failure, they were promptly brought to trial at the end of October. Brown was hung on December 2nd.

Victor Hugo had pleaded for a pardon for John Brown, writing,

“[…] Politically speaking, the murder of John Brown would be an uncorrectable sin. It would create in the Union a latent fissure that would in the long run dislocate it. Brown’s agony might perhaps consolidate slavery in Virginia, but it would certainly shake the whole American democracy. You save your shame, but you kill your glory. Morally speaking, it seems a part of the human light would put itself out, that the very notion of justice and injustice would hide itself in darkness, on that day where one would see the assassination of Emancipation by Liberty itself. […]

Let America know and ponder on this: there is something more frightening than Cain killing Abel, and that is Washington killing Spartacus.”

If I note this, it’s because James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell Noyes named their first son, born 1865, Victor Hugo. This has no connection with Austin Hall story. What it does show is the high regard held by the French free-thinker Hugo among American free-thinkers of the time.

If one clicks on the bottom blue dot twice, one will be given directions to Marais Des Cygnes.


View Wooded Hills Region in a larger map

Pansy Noyes Bryant on the Adams Genealogy

It was once popular (likely still is) to find if one’s family had any connection to a president.

Pansy Noyes Bryant (1895 – 1985) recorded, for her family, the Noyes connection to President Adams. The Henry Adams she writes of (breathless confusion follows) was father of Joseph, father of Joseph, father of John the 2nd president. Henry Adams was also the father of Thomas, father of Peletiah, father of Elizabeth who married Deacon John Cummings who were parents of Deacon William Cummings, father of Bridget Cummings who married John Atwell who was father of Nathaniel who was father of Hiram who was father of Caroline Atwell who married James Noyes. So Elizabeth Adams who married Cummings, a contemporary of John Adams, was his 2nd cousin once removed.

I have transcribed from the document supplied me by Nancy Benton.

About the year 1608 in the little village of Charleton Mackrel on the river Cary, among the Polden Hills in the heart of English Somersetshire, a young girl was being courted by a lad from the neighboring village of Barton St. David.

The girls name was Edith and she was the daughter of a certain Henry Squire. The lad who made her his wife in 1609 or there abouts was Henry Adams – a young farmer who held some land by the old English system of copyhold from the lord of the Manor of Barton St. David. How rapidly children came to fill the farm house we do not know but in all eight sons and one daughter lived to grow up.

For some reason Henry Adams decided to abandon the home where his family had probably lived for generations and to try his luck in the New World. The moving may have been religious or it may have been economic or as was often the case, a combination of the two.

About 1636 he arrived at Boston Mass with his wife and nine children.

He was granted land at MT. Wollaston afterward called Braintree, and managed to establish a foothold.

After his buriel on Oct. 8, 1646, the inventory of his estate reveals that he had a house and barn, a cow and calf, some pigs, furniture and utensils and three beds – one in the parlor and two in the chamber. More noteworthy and probably relics of the old days in England were a silver teaspoon and some books.

The estate was worth 75 pounds, equally divided between real and personal property.

This Henry Adams was the great grandfather of John Adams, our second president.

The earlier generations of the Adam’s family are buried at Quincy Mass. where the old family home still stands.

This information is from the Prologue of “The Adam’s Family” by James Thuslow (?) Adams published 1930.

Written by Pansy Noyes Bryant


Orrin Ellie Harmon, Who Loved Poetry and to Gaze Upon the Stars

One has to like a man who desired to give up the practice of law for writing poetry and studying the stars, which can be in itself a poetic pursuit of grand visions and soul refining reflections on the nature of one’s place in the grand scheme of things.

Orrin Ellie Harmon, who authored The Story of Liberal, Missouri, the earliest known book on Liberal’s history, was the son-in-law of ancestor James Allan Noyes and Caroline Atwell Noyes who were early settlers in the free-thought community of Liberal, the Noyes moving there in August of 1882 (I’ve a diary of Caroline’s chronicling part of their journey). Orrin had married the Noyes’ eldest daughter Emma Viola Noyes on July 9, 1878 in Anna, Union, Illinois, but to the best of my knowledge Orrin and Emma didn’t make the move to Liberal with the Noyes, instead relocating from Anna to Chehalis, Lewis, Washington about 1882.


View Larger Map
From Anna, Illinois to Chehalis, Washington, Google style

They remained in Chehalis a number of years, where Orrin practiced law, taught school, wrote poetry and gazed at the night skies. When Orrin was told his health merited a change, in the Spring of 1897 Orrin and Emma migrated to Liberal.

Orrin was born Dec 3, 1854 in Kalamazoo, Michigan to Asa and Lucy Snow Harmon. The family had moved to Van Buren, Michigan and had then relocated to Anna, Illinois about 1866. We find them in the 1870 census living three households from the Noyes.

The Noyes were long time residents in Kalamazoo, and by 1866 James Allen Noyes and Caroline were in Anna, Illinois where a photo of them was made. One would guess the Harmon and Noyes families had known each other in Kalamazoo, perhaps even migrated together, but Orrin’s obituary anticipates our suspicions and notes that despite both coming from Kalamazoo, the families weren’t acquainted until living in Anna.

Orrin and Emma were in Washington when on Oct 18 1887 Emma’s sister, Cora Rachel Noyes Greene, died in Liberal with the birth of her first child at the age of 24, a boy named Robert.

Perhaps Robert’s father, Frank Greene, felt he would be unable to care for his son as a widower (I’ll address this letter in a post on Robert, who became a well known baseball player) but Orrin and Emma adopted him. Orrin and Emma never did have biological children.

When 32, Orrin published a volume of poems titled, “Voices from the Cascades”. I have the text of that and will be putting it up on the blog at some point.

He loved poetry–writing it, discussing it, teaching it.

And he loved the stars. Orrin loved astronomy. From 1893 to 1898 he furnished planetary predictions to the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. People would look in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer for information on the heavens and there would sometimes be O. E. Harmon’s name telling them what they could expect.

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volumes 1 – 26 shows the following articles of Orrin’s that were published:

The Solar Eclipse of June 6, 1891
Solar Eclipse, October 20, 1892
Solar Eclipse, October 9, 1893
The Harvest Moon (date not given)
Predictions for the Transit of Mercury, November 10, 1894

He also published, “Position of the Earth’s Axis”.

The photo that was selected to depict Orrin in his book The Story of Liberal, Missouri shows him gazing at the planet Saturn.

Attempt at photoshopping to make the image look a bit better.


Unknown if this is a studio shot but likely is.
From what my father says, his house was…unpretentious.

The biographical sketch of Orrin in the same book was perhaps written by Orrin himself and is fairly detailed, revealing a person whose dream was to study the stars but was required to give it up for reasons of health that made it necessary for he and Emma to leave Washington and move to Liberal.

O. E. Harmon was born in Kalamazoo County, Michigan, December 3, 1854. His father, Asa Harmon, was a native of Vermont, and descended from John Harmon, a native of England, who settled in Springfield, Mass., about 1640. John Harmon was the first Harmon to settle in America, and his descendants are widely scattered over the United States. Among them may be mentioned ex-Governor Harmon of Ohio, and Mrs. Cleveland, the wife of President Grover Cleveland.

A short time before the breaking out of the Civil War, Asa Harmon removed to Van Buren County, Michigan. Here he lived when the fire on Fort Sumter sounded the beginning of the war. He enlisted in the Union Army, first in the 2nd Michigan Cavalry, the regiment of which Phil Sheridan was the colonel; and later was transferred to the 3rd Michigan Cavalry, of which regiment he became chaplain.

He was mustered out of the service in the spring of 1866, and in that year moved to Union County, Illinois. Here O. E. Harmon lived with his parents until the spring of 1881, excepting a period (1874-1876) which he spent in Colorado. O. E. received his education in the district school and in the high school at Anna, in Union County.

In 1878 he began the study of the law, and in June of that year married E. Viola Noyes, the daughter of James A. Noyes, and sister of Ray Noyes, who lives near Libearl.

He was licensed to practise law by the Supreme Court of Illinois in October, 1880. After a few months spent in the practice of the law at Anna, he moved to Washington, and after teaching school in Lewis County one year, settled at Chehalis, the county seat of Lewis County. This was in the spring of 1882. Here he practised law, and at different times served as deputy in the offices of County Auditor and County Clerk. He lived in Lewis County until the spring of 1897. He became interested in Astronomy in 1888, and his calculations on the solar eclipse of June, 1891, drew complimentary letters from the astronomical staff of the Lick Observatory located at Mount Hamilton, California. He contributed articles to the publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and to “Popular Astronomy” published at Northfield, Minn. He furnished the planetary predictions to the Seattle Post-Intelligencer for five years (1893-1898). Besides the above astronomical work while a resident of Washington, he brought out in 1886, a little volume of poems entitled, “Voices from the Cascades.”

The cordial reception his astronomical writings received encouraged him to look forward to the career of the professional astronomer, and he planned to take a course of special training for that purpose. But in the winter of 1896-7, his health failed and he was obliged to give up his plans. The doctors advised a change of climate, and this brought him to Barton County, Missouri, in the spring of 1897. Here he has lived ever since with the exception of three years (1916-9) spent in Louisiana. During his residence in Barton County, he has lived on a little farm southeast of Liberal, which he has named “Lyrian Farm.”

His later writings have been published in the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Springfield, (Mass.) Republican and Shreveport Times. He has also contributed to the local papers of Barton County, both on astronomical and literary subjects.

Among his literary writings may be mentioned “The Astronomy of Shakespeare” in which knowledge of the great poet relating to astronomy is very fully developed. This work was published in “Popular Astronomy.”

Mr. Harmon has always been a close student and has ever taken a deep interest in educational matters. His addresses to the schools and teachers’ meetings in Barton County bear ample testimony to this feature of his character.

J. P. Moore’s “This Strange Town – – Liberal Missouri” had this to say about Orrin:

“A History of Liberal” written by O. E. Harmon and titled, “The Story of Liberal, Missouri,” was published in 1925. The work was excellent, but much shorter than this treatise. Unfortunately, not a great many copies of the book had been sold when the bulk of the edition was destroyed by a fire that burned a business building in which the books were stored.

In the limited size of the work, Mr. Harmon gave only a few accounts of specific happenings. But there was one which I take the liberty to quote in part. It indicates that it was not always “all sweetness and light” in the Freethinker’s camp…

Note: And I’ll skip those few paragraphs as they’re in the book transcription online and have to do with Walser rather than Harmon.

Mr. Harmon was a finely educated man, but withal, he was something of an eccentric. He had been a lawyer and a college professor. However, on account of ill health, he had abandoned professional life, came to Liberal from the state of Washington in 1897 and settled on a small farm in the vicinity. But he did little farming; instead, he devoted himself to his main interests, astronomy and poetry, feature writing and what seemed to be a hobby, speaking at the school.

He had a propensity to frequent the school to lecture the pupils on astronomy, and poetry. All this came to be regarded as something of a bother by the faculty, but not so by the pupils. One who was a pupil in the time, Mrs. Alta Moore, remarked to this writer: “He talked over our heads, but we liked it; for when he talked we didn’t have to study, and sometimes we got to skip a recitation.” He had written articles on astronomy for scientific magazines, and he was a frequent contributor to local newspapers.

Born in Michigan on December 3, 1854; he passed away here many years ago. His wife was a daughter of James A. Noyes, a pioneer farmer of the vicinity. It was because of this relationship that Mr. Harmon came to this locality.

Orrin was probably blind to the real reason some of the students enjoyed his lectures, probably blind to the teachers finding his intrusions annoying, which I like, because without resentment he was able to continue going in and giving his lectures, building this story of his life as a tolerant person who held no rancour, as is stated in his obituary. Then again, if he did sense why the students enjoyed his lectures, and the irritation of the teachers, the keen sense of humor he’s given as having may have been one part of however many reasons that led him to continue returning to the school to lecture.

Orrin died in 1940. Unfortunately, his obituary doesn’t say when he died.

O. E. HARMON OBITUARY
THE END FOR LIBERAL’s NOTED POET SAGE AND PHILOSOPHER

O. E. Harmon passed at His Home at 10 o’clock, Saturday night – had Been a Student All of His Life – When A Very Young Man He Was Admitted to the Bar But he did Not Like the Law – Came to Liberal and Settled on a Small Farm, Forty Three Years Ago – Devoted Much of His Time to Study – Loved the Poets, Wrote Excellent Verse and Was a Life Long Student of Mathematics – Had a Fine Mind and a Frail Body – Was a Bold and Free Thinker, But was Ever Kindly and Tolerant – Bob Harmon, for Some Years a Pitching Ace for the St. Louis Cardinals Was His Adopted Son – Faithful Wife Who Had Stood by his Side for Sixty two Years, Cared for Him Tenderly During the years While He Was an Invalid

O. E. Harmon, student, poet and philosopher, died at his home in Liberal at 10 o’clock, Saturday evening. Mr. Harmon was eighty five years old. He had been in feeble health for the past eight years. But until three days before the end he was able to sit up in a chair. He was conscious up until the last though he was so weak it was difficult for him to speak. When Mrs. Harmon would come about the bed where he lay he was inclined to repeat the short, all embracing phrase, I am done!

Mrs. Harmon had cared for him during the long years of his illness, much as she would a child. His food required special preparation and finally had to be strained. No labor nor care was too great for her (…) everything was (…) him that could be done.

Orin Elliot Harmon was born in Kalamazoo County, Michigan, December 3rd, 1854. When he was a lad of ten, his father Asa Harmon moved to Illinois and settled on a farm near Anna. The elder Mr. Harmon had come from Vermont to Michigan. James Allen Noyes had moved from Vermont to Kalamazoo County in Michigan, and went from there to near Anna in Illinois. But the Noyes and the Harmon families had never known each other. But when they settled in Illinois, they found themselves on adjoining farms. Then they became acquainted.

Viola Noyes a lassie of sixteen and Orrin became sweethearts, and January 9th 1878, when Viola was seventen and Orrin was twenty three they were married. The young man had gone through the schools at Anna. He went to college for a time but not for so very long. But he was a great student and all his life put much of this time upon his books.

He had been admitted to the law bar, when he married Viola, and he opened an office in Anna. But he didn’t like the law. They moved in the course of a year, to Chehalis, Washington. There he taught school, and for some time, during their sixteen year stay at this city, he practiced law.

Forty three years ago, he and Viola moved to Barton County and settled down on a small farm where they lived until his death.

He early became an amatuer astronomer. He learned to calculate the planetary conjunctions and eclipses. His greatest study was Mathematics.

His next love was verse. He delighted to read the great English and American poets, and he wrote excellent verse. He did this chiefly as a passtime. He got out a series of poems relating to Barton County, which he had published in a handsome little volume.

His verses were bold and free, but he was ever kindness and toleration themselves. He held no rancor.

Further, Mr. Harmon had a very keen sense of humor and a pen that could portray it piquantly as well as vividly.

He was a small frail man, but he had a fine mind and a great soul. He leaves his beloved wife who cared for him so tenderly and his foster son Bob Harmon, long an ace pitcher with the St. Louis Cardinals, now owner of a big plantation in Shreveport, Louisiana.

The body was taken to Burkey Mortuary at Mulberry to be prepared for burial.

Services were held in Liberal Methodist church Liberal at 4 o’clock, Monday afternoon, followed by interment in the Liberal cemetery.

Mr. Harmon’s widow is a sister of the well known citizen Ray Noyes of Liberal. The father, the late James Allen Noyes, moved to Liberal forty eight years ago.

Note: The obit erroneously gives the month of marriage as January.

Oh, how I wish I had Orrin’s book of poems he wrote on Liberal. I’ve checked with the Barton County libraries and unfortunately none are shown as having it, which is too bad as he was a citizen. It seems the Liberal library should have a copy just as a matter of an interest in the history of Liberal.

James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell of Liberal, Missouri

The photo, courtesy of Nancy Benton, shows James Allen Noyes and Caroline Atwell with daughters Emma Viola b. 1860 and Cora Rachel b. 1863. One will notice that the photograph is actually 2 combined.

James Allen NOYES was my grandfather. He had a happy childhood at Pavilion, Mich near Kalamazoo. His father was experimenting with the theory of Alphadelphianism, and they all lived in common community. After his mother’s death and his father’s marriage to Miss Susan WATERS, who was southern in belief, he was unhappy and started out for himself. He was forever looking for other communities that were trying the theory of Alphadelphianism. He went to Berlin Heights, Erie Co., Ohio, where such a group existed. Here he met Caroline ATWELL of Waterbury, VT who was living with an aunt and attending school. He was drafted in the Union army but paid a substitute to go in his place. In 1864 he left Michigan and went to Anna, Illinois where he lived 18 years raising fruit and potatoes and shipping to the Chicago market before coming to Liberal, MO, where he had heard of another group of Freethinkers that had ideas similar to Alphadelphians. The trip from Anna to Liberal took three weeks by covered wagon in 1882. He saw his idea fail again at Liberal. He died on his farm at Liberal in 1901. I well remember the songs he used to sing to me, walks he and I took to the neighbors and especially the whistles he could make from maple whips early in the spring.

Source: Nancy Benton, from Grace Noyes Pinkerton’s writing on the Noyes.

James Allen NOYES, son of James NOYES and Sally MARBLE was born 22 Dec. 1826 at Ann Arbor, Michigan. He died 24 Jan. 1901 at Liberal Barton Co. MO.

On 28 June 1859 at (Brady Village) Kalamazoo Co. Michigan, James NOYES married Caroline ATWELL, daughter of Hiram ATWELL and Rachel SCAGEL.

Caroline was born 2 Oct 1835 at Waterbury, Washington Co. VT and died 18 April 1894 at Liberal Barton Co. MO.

James was 32 and Caroline 23 when they were married. He died at 74 and she at 58. Emma born when they were 25 and 34. Cora born when they were 27 and 36. Victor born when they were 29 and 38. Allen born when they were 32 and 41. Paul born when they were 34 and 42. Ray born when they were 38 and 47.

In 1864, James and Caroline moved to Anna, Union County, Illinois. In 1882, they moved to Barton County, Missouri where they resided the remainder of their lives.

James and Caroline had the following children:

  • 1) Emma Viola was b. 15 Dec. 1860 at 4 oclock at Wakeshma MI, married, 9 June 1878 in Anna, Union Co. IL, Ormie Ellie HARMON who was born Dec. 1853 in Michigan. They adopted Cora’s son Robert after her death in childbirth. Emma died at age 85, 24 Oct. 1946, in Monroe, LA. O. E. Harmon wrote, “The Story of Liberal Missouri”

    “Viola had a son who died when he was about a year old. She and husband O.E. adopted her sister’s son when her sister died in childbirth. They lived in Chehalis, WA for 20 years, then moved to Liberal where they lived for 40 years. She died of heart failure in home of her adopted son, Robert Harmon, in Monroe, LA.”
    SOURCE: Nancy Benton
  • (2) Cora Rachel was born 19 April 1863 at “1 and 1/4 oclock” in Wakeshma, MI. She married Frank GREEN, 30 March 1886 at Junction, Geary, KS. Cora died in childbirth, 16 Oct. 1887 at Liberal, Barton Co. MO. Her son, Robert, was adopted by Cora’s sister, Emma Viola.
  • (3) Victor Hugo was born 20 August 1865 at “4 o clock” in Anna, Union Co. IL. He died at the age of 21, 23 Oct. 1886 at Wildwood, FL., killed by a train. Because of a yellow fever epidemic, his body was buried for a year there, then brought to Liberal. Victor traveled a good deal, including a trip to China, from which he returned with silkworms which he raised for silk. A letter of his is on this blog.
  • (4) Allen Marble was born 30 Oct. 1867 at “4 o’clock AM” at Anna, Union County, Illinois. He married Susie REYNOLDS, 1 May 1897, at age 29. He died, 21 April 1939, at Dexter, Stoddard Co., MI at the age of 72. His Niece, Grace PINKERTON, wrote, “Allen made the land run into Indian Territory in 1889 and settled on a farm near Miller, OK. Since he had made the first run and was experienced, he was the teacher of a group of ten men who made the run into the Cherokee Strip in 1893. They met at Orlando, OK. several days before at the home of one of the men. They rode into the strip early to choose the place they wanted which was about midway or nearly a 30 mile ride from the border. The farms were adjoining ones in a bend of two streams called Red River and Bunch Creek. On the morning of September 16 1893 everyone lined up on the border. The only food they carried with them was bread.” The 1889 land run was April 22nd. An 1895 map shows a town of MIller in OK County, in the Spring Creek area, toward the center of the state, below Logan and west of Pottawatomie.
  • (5) Paul was born 24 Nov. 1869 at “10 oclock AM” in Anna, Union Co. IL, and died 3 May 1931 at Humansville, Polk Co., MO. He married Edna STARK. Their two children were Grace, b. 1892, who married PINKERTON, and Ormal, b. 1893. His daughter, Grace PINKERTON, wrote, “Paul made the run into the OK Cherokee Strip with his brother Allen in 1893. Another man arrived at the property he wanted at the same time and he paid him $25 for the site. He had bought a fine racing mare to ride in the opening and was grieved when she had to be shot a few days later because her hooves were coming off from being ridden so hard. After he completed the required shanty and fencing and plowed a plot of ground, he went back to his brother Allen’s farm to get his family.” He can be seen in the 1900 Barton Co. census. More on Paul Noyes.
  • (6) Ray, b. 4 Jan. 1874 at “10 1/2 clock A.M.” at Anna, Union Co., IL, married Elizabeth Jane BREWER.
    Post on the family of Ray and Bettie.

James Allen NOYES’ father was a president of the Alphadelphia Association, a Utopian community which lasted from 1844 to 1848. James Allen traveled to different communities and he and, as noted above, were at Berlin Heights. Later they moved to Liberal, Missouri, which was to be a “Free-Thinkers” town. During the McCarthy years the family destroyed all materials and letters associated with Alphadelphia and the days of Utopian interests.

A TIME LINE

A time line will help with presenting events on James Allen’s life.

• Birth, 22 Dec 1826, Michigan, Washtenaw County, Ann Arbor. Birth date from Family Record of James Noyes created by James A. and Caroline Atwell Noyes. The copy by Caroline gives the birth year as 1836.

1826 was the year of the formation of Washtenaw Co.

• Sibling’s Birth: Maryette is born., 17 Jul 1828.

• Census, 1830, Michigan, Washtenaw County, Ann Arbor.

An unidentified 20 to 30 year old male is in the household.

pg. 138
Harvey CHUBB
John CHANDLER
Eli CHANDLER
John A. ENSWORTH
WIlliam STUBBS
Phillip McKUNAN?
Michael STUBBS
William PRINGLE
JOhn SLOE?
Elam SLOE?
Aaron ROSENGRANTS
Hugh MCCALL
John BENWICK
Isaac SEWALL
Avis BRUNDAGE
George MCGOUNTER?
Moses ALLEN
Eli CONKLIN
William ALLEN
David BOTIFORD
David HUEA?
Joseph LORCE
Benjamin SUTTON
James NOYES 1 – 1 – 1 1 | 1 1 1 – – 1
NOTE: 1 male under 5, 1 10 to 15, 1 male 20 to 30, 1 male 30 to 40, 1 female under 5, 1 female 5 to 10, 1 female 10 to 15, 1 female 30 to 40.
1 male under 5 would be James Allen. Male 10 to 15 would be Ezra. James is the 30 to 40 male. I don’t know who the 20 to 30 male is. 1 female under 5 would be Maryette. Female 5 to 10 would be B. J. Female 10 to 15 would be Elizabeth. And then Sally Marble.
John C. CARPENTER
John NIXEN
Isaac SUTTON

• Sibling’s Birth: Dan is born., 4 Nov 1831.

• Sibling’s Birth: Delia is born., 15 Nov 1833.

• Sibling’s Death: Dan dies at the age of 3 of malaria fever., 10 Sep 1835.

• Sibling’s Death: Delia dies at 4 of malaria fever., 1837.

• Mother’s Death, 10 Aug 1838. James’ mother died when he was 11.

• Father remarries, 1839. James’ father remarries to Susan WATERS.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, George W. is born., 8 May 1840.

• Census, 1840, Michigan, Kalamazoo County, Pavilion Township.

pg. 253 (ancestry.com 1)
John B. CHIPMAN
Martin McCAIN
Sally CHIPMAN
John HOLCUM
James NOYES 1 – 1 1 2 – 1 | 1 – 1 1 1
NOTE: 1 male under 5, 1 male 10 to 15, 1 male 15 to 20, 2 males 20 to 30 1 male 40 to 50, 1 female under 5, 1 female 10 to 15, 1 female 15 to 20, 1 female 20 to 30

1 male under 5 would be George W. (son of Susan Waters and James Noyes), 1 male 10 to 15 would be James Allen. 1 male 15 to 20 would be? 1 of the 2 20 to 30 males would be Ezra, James is the 40 to 50 year old male. 1 female under 5 would be Sarah Malissa, 1 female 10 to 15 would be Maryette. 1 female 15 to 20 would be B. J. 1 female 20 to 30 would not be Elizabeth if she was married before 1839. Though Susan’s birthdate is given as 1815, this female would be her.

• Sibling’s Death: Ezra dies at 23., 17 Jun 1841.

• Sibling’s Death: Maryette dies at the age of 14., 13 Feb 1843.

• Sibling’s Death: B. J. dies at the age of 19, of malaria fever., 6 May 1843.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Daniel T. is born, 11 Sep 1843.

• Half-sibling’s Death: Daniel T. dies in infancy., After 11 Sep 1843.

• Commune: Alphadelphia – First meeting, 21 Mar 1844.

• 1846. It was under duress that Dr. H. R. Schetterly, who founded the Alphadelphia Association, was forced to leave, the Community convicting him of appropriating goods to the amount of two hundred dollars and the Sunday June 21 1846 Day Book reporting that he “ran away this day.”

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Mary R. is born., 7 Mar 1847.

• Commune: Alphadelphia – Dissolution, 30 Apr 1848.

• Residence, 3 Jun 1848, Indiana, Lagrange County,

James compiled a list of family births and deaths and dated it 1848, place, IN, Lagrange Co., Springfield.

Schetterly, a founding member of Alphadelphia, is also given in one of the news articles on Alphadelphia as going to Lagrange and Wisconsin. It’s known he left Kalamazoo in 1846 under duress. The record books for Alphadelphia give him as “fleeing” the community after getting in some trouble to do with funds. It could be that James Allen traveled with him, though with Schetterly fleeing under duress this is questionable.

The 1850 Indiana, Lagrange County, Springfield census shows Cornelius W. VINING, one of hte initial directors of Alphadelphia.

A Fourier publication from the 1840s refers to a Fourier community in Lagrange so that’s where I would imagine James was in 1848. John Humphrey Noyes mentions this info in his publication on American Socialism. In the same paragraph is mentioned a Fourier “Washtenaw Phalanx” which would be Alphadelphia. At the time the Washtenaw Phalanx was mentioned in the Fourier publication it was still in the planning stages, c. 1842

• Accessory Document: James Noyes Family Record, 3 Jun 1848.

• Timeline note: John Humphrey Noyes founds Oneida Perfectionist Community, 1848, New York, Oneida.

It is likely that at some point, James Allen stayed at Oneida. Dorothy Noyes McKenney (my grandmother) spoke of a relation (I had thought an aunt or great aunt) staying for a while with her family, who had been at Oneida. She was fairly concrete on this, saying the woman never married and would not discuss Oneida. But I have not been able to determine who this relative was. It is perhaps one of those family connections that isn’t apparent on the family tree and is not even recorded. My grandmother called her an aunt or great-aunt, but no such individual lived at Oneida. For all I know, if she wasn’t familially connected, she could have been an individual who James had met at Oneida, who later came to stay with the family and who was called “aunt”.

James Allan Noyes and John Humphrey Noyes were only 4th cousins, but John Humphrey Noyes’ sister Elizabeth F. had moved from Putney to to Kalamazoo, Michigan with her husband Fletcher Ransom and his brother Roswell Ransom is known to have been a member of Alphadelphia.

• Promissory Note: Places in Battle Creek, 14 Dec 1849.

For value received I promise to pay to James A. Noyes or bearer the sum of twenty three dollars & sixty cents on or before the first of June 1850 with use. Samuel Dickinson.
Battle Creek Dec 14 1849

• Travels, 1850-1860, Wisconsin, Waukesha County, New Berlin.

After the deaths of Hiram ATWELL and his wife Rachel SCAGEL, Caroline ATWELL is given as having gone to live with an aunt. This has been given by Grace Noyes Pinkerton, who first did the research, in both New Berlin, Wisconsin and Berlin Heights, Ohio. It appears that Caroline was indeed associated with both New Berlin and Berlin Heights for she had addresses in her address book connecting her with both places.

George SCAGEL and Deborah Hunkins SCAGEL were one set of relatives in New Berlin, Waukesha Co. WI in 1850. George’s sister, Sarah Sally Scagel BRYAN, was living next to the Hiram Atwell family in 1850. As George SCAGEL died in 1850, she perhaps went to live for a period with Deborah HUNKINS SCAGEL who was a first cousin once removed through the HUNKINS and also an aunt by way of being married to her mother’s brother, George.

George SCAGEL and wife Deborah HUNKINS were first cousins, he being a nephew of her mother Hannah SCAGEL. Moses HUNKINS, Deborah’s father, was a brother of Lydia HUNKINS who married Nathaniel ATWELL, father of Hiram ATWELL who married Rachel SCAGEL, sister of George. Moses and Lydia HUNKINS’ brother, Robert HASTINGS, had a grandson, Hazen Hastings HUNKINS, who married Aurelia Seymour SCAGEL, daughter of George SCAGEL and Deborah HUNKINS.

As noted, Aurelia, daughter of George and Deobrah, married Hazen Hastings HUNKINS. They had a daughter named Carrie in 1855 who is possibly a namesake of Caroline ATWELL, and was found in Caroline’s address book.

Daughter Deborah married Robert Hastings HUNKINS who was a nephew of Hazen Hastings HUNKINS through his brother Robert W. who is given as having died Feb 1845 in Wisconsin.

We have no way of knowing if Caroline went to Wisconsin before or after her working at Pacific Mills.

Tracing the whereabouts of Caroline Atwell and James Noyes circulates to some extent around the different communes of the time. Caroline’s address book and family history offer a few leads.

Schetterly, who founded the Alphadelphia Association of which James’ father was a President, in a news article on Alphadelphia is given as going to Lagrange , Indiana and Wisconsin then back to Michigan. No time frame is given but in the 1850 census Dr. Schetterly appears to be already back in Michigan. We know James Noyes was in Lagrange June 3 1848. It could be he traveled with him, though as Schetterly left under duress it seems questionable.

Grace Noyes Pinkerton recorded, “(James) was forever looking for other communities that were trying out the theory of Alphadelphianism. He went to Berlin Heights, Ohio, where such a group existed. Here he met Caroline Atwell of Waterbury, VT. She was living with an aunt and attending school.” Because this leaves out the time she worked at Pacific Mills, and because the time at New Berlin has apparently become confused with the time at Berlin Heights, it’s difficult to put the decade into chronological order in relation to Caroline and where she was at what time.

There was a Fouerier community in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin called the Ceresco Commune (1847-1851, given as dissolving December 1849…record books continued until 1857). Fond du Lac is a couple of counties over from Waukesha.
http://www.ripon.edu/library/archives/reference/history.html

Though the Wisconsin Phalanx ended in 1857, its day as a commune were finished by 1851. It was supposed to have been a very successful community that disbanded at its height when it was still doing very well, and sold out its holdings for a good sum, making quite a profit.

The Wisconsin Phalanx ending in 1857 and the Berlin Heights experiment in OH beginning in 1857, so it is perhaps plausible that James may have gone to Wisconsin where he met Caroline (she is at the mill in 1857 but may not have been there for long), and then they both traveled to Berin Heights in Ohio. Sarah Melissa NOYES ended up in WI for a while with her husband John SLATER. They were married there in 1857. It may be that Sarah traveled there with James, and the 1857 marriage may help in placing Caroline and James perhaps meeting about that time in Wisconsin. Or as Pansy, their granddaughter states at one point, they may have met instead at Berlin Heights and Caroline’s time in New Berlin was separate from her meeting James NOYES. Regardless, they were together for a period of time in Ohio, as also evidenced by Caroline’s address book which gives the following name: Francis Barry Berlin Heights, Ohio.

The 1850 census shows for Ohio, Erie County, Berlin:

167/167 Samuel S. BARRY 25 blacksmith
Elsie H. BARRY 23
Francis O. BARRY 24 preacher after ancient gospel
George BUCKINGHAM 21 wagon maker
William BUCKINGHAM 23 wagon maker

I would imagine this is the same BARRY as below:

Francis Barry. Free Love community; ed. with Cordelia Age of Freedom, cited History of the Firelands, comprising Huron and Erie Counties, Ohio . . . (Cleveland, W.W. Williams, 1879), 487; Age of Freedom 1858)

Francis Barry had to do with the Berlin Heights Community, known as a kind of Free Love community, and published with Cordelia the “Age of Freedom” circular.

Hudson Tuttle wrote on Francis Barry, and apparently hadn’t much affection for his journal:

The Berlin people are noted for tolerance, but it may be presumed that the socialists, with their strange ideas, did not always find their paths strewn with roses, and the citizens still retain fresh in their memories, how, when Francis Barry attempted to mail a number of the obnoxious “Age of Freedom”, twenty Berlin women seized the mail-sack in which he had brought it on his shoulder to the office, and made a bonfire in the street. The following journals were successively started by the socialists and ran brief careers: “Social Revolutionist”, conducted by J. S. Patterson, 1857; “Age of Freedom”, commenced in 1858, Frank and Cordelia Barry and C. M. Overton, editors; “Good Time Coming”, 1859, edited by J. P. Lesley and C. M. Overton; the “New Republic”, 1862, edited by Francis Barry; “The Optimist” and “Kingdom of Heaven”, 1869, Thomas Cook, editor; “The Principia”, or Personality”, 1868, N. A. Brown, editor; the “New Campaign”, 1871, C. M. Overton, editor; “The Toledo Sun”, moved from Toledo to Be lin Heights in 1875, by John A. Laut. Besides these, two local newspapers were published for some time: “The Bulletin”, by W. B. Harrison, commenced in 1870; and the “Index” by F. J. Miles, commenced in 1875.

Whatever the sequence of events, Caroline and James would have been in Berlin Heights Ohio at the time the of the Community there.

John Humphrey NOYES, founder of the Oneida Community and distant relative of James Allen, wrote the following on the Berlin Heights experiment.

The Putney Community by John Humphrey Noyes, compiled and edited by George Wallingford Noyes

Chapter 19

FREE LOVE

SWEDENBORG was not alone in his hostility to marriage. The socialistic innovators, whose experiments we have reviewed, attacked not merely the economic hilt also the sexual foundations of modern society.

The religious colonies that came early from Europe felt instinctively that marriage was antagonistic to communism. Partly for this reason and partly in the interest of a supposedly higher religious life the Shakers adopted celibacy as a cardinal principle. The Rappites too were originally celibate. Even after marriage was allowed in order that they might “raise their own members,” sexual commerce beyond the requirements of reproduction was prohibited, and virginity was held to be more commendable than marriage. The Ephratists, the Zoarites and the Amana Society tolerated marriage, but looked upon it with disfavor.

Robert Owen did not attempt the immediate displacement of marriage. But he included marriage with irrational religion and private property as one of the “awful trinity” of man’s oppressors, and contemplated its ultimate destruction. His son, Robert Dale Owen, was outspoken in his enmity to marriage, and became a leading advocate of free divorce. Both father and son were enthusiastic disciples of Modern Spiritualism, a religious cult of which Free Love was believed by many the social complement.

Certain groups of “antinomian Perfectionists” renounced marriage and mated by spiritual affinity. [1] Noyes and the Putney Perfectionists, as we have seen, held aloof from these groups, believing that marriage was ordained by God as the law of the apostasy and was not to be set aside until salvation from sin and the resurrection of the body had been attained.

The Mormons in 1843 adopted polygamy, which Noyes called a dilution of marriage.

Like Robert Owen, American Fourierists were cautious of im-

1 Religious Experience of John Humphrey Noyes Chap. XIX.

186

mediate changes in the law of marriage. But Henry J. Raymond showed in his public debate with Horace Greeley that as a system Fourierism permitted “higher degrees of amorous freedom” after the human race had become regenerated by socialistic institutions.

The socialistic reformer whose teachings were the most highly subversive of marriage was Josiah Warren, inventor of the term “Individual Sovereignty.” At Modern Times, Long Island, his final socialistic experiment, each member was supposed to know his or her best interests in the sexual relation as in everything else, and no questions were asked. It was here that Warren in 1851 enlisted Stephen Pearl Andrews to popularize the doctrine of Individual Sovereignty by a series of lectures and by a pamphlet distributed gratuitously. Among the converts were Dr. and Mrs. Thomas L. Nichols, water-cure specialists of New York City. They were publicity adepts and prepared themselves at Modern Times to broadcast the principle of Free Love based on Individual Sovereignty and Modern Spiritualism.

The essential connection between Free Love and Spiritualism is thus stated by C. M. Overton, editor of The Social Revolutionist, a Free Love journal: “Free Love is a doctrine of Spiritualism. I say of Spiritualism, not of Spiritualists. Many recognize the facts of Spiritualism who know little of its philosophy. But will any intelligent Spiritualist deny that the concurrent testimony of the spheres proves that their inhabitants are controlled in their love relations not by arbitrary outside authority but by the law of attraction, affinity or Free Love? Is it not a conceded fact that the angels do not have to be hauled up before a magistrate to legalize their marriages? How supremely ridiculous the idea that the men and women of Paradise live together on the cat and dog principle because it wouldn’t be respectable to separate! They are not so generous there as to sacrifice their individual happiness for the good of the community. They are not so senseless there as to stay together and scratch and pull hair from a sense of duty to their children or other members of the community, when these other members are doing the same thing from the same laudable motive! The fact that they break up false relations there and form new ones is as well established and is just as much a part of the Spiritual or Harmonic Philosophy as the doctrine of Endless Progression.”

In 1852 the Nicholses joined with Andrews in establishing at Port Chester, New York, a Free Love School under the guise of a water-cure and vegetarian Medical College. It was suppressed by the authorities. Dr. Nichols then put forth a flowery prospectus

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of “The Institute of Desarrollo.” This was to be based frankly on Individual Sovereignty, and was expected to garner all the results that had been vainly looked for in the Fourieristic Associations. A site was selected near Modern Times, the cellar dug, the foundation wall partly laid, when the plan was abandoned. Dr. Nichols explained that a campaign of education should precede practical attempts. To this be now addressed himself.

His first move was the establishment of a magazine called Nichols’ Journal, in which Spiritualism, health and social relations were discussed.

Next he published a book of five hundred pages entitled Esoteric Anthropology. This, he prefaced, was “no book for the center-table, the library shelf, or the counter of a bookstore.” It was a private treatise on physiology and health, written “not to get consultations but to prevent their necessity, not to attract patients but to keep them away.” Free Love, though hinted, was not directly advocated. During 1853 and 1854 twenty-six thousand copies were sold.
To this great audience Dr. Nichols in 1854 introduced his second book entitled Marriage, in which he openly presented his threefold creed, Individual Sovereignty, Spiritualism, and Free Love. Marriage ran through three large editions during its first year. By the fall of 1854 Dr. Nichols’ writings were circulating actively in every State of the Union, especially in the west.

So widespread was the popularity of these new doctrines that Dr. Nichols ventured upon overt acts in the full glare of publicity. With his former partner, Stephen Pearl Andrews, he instituted a series of “Sociables” in New York City, which were broken up by the police.

Dr. Nichols now found himself accepted as the prophet of a new age by scattered thousands eager to share in its benefits. How could he make his followers known to each other and commence the realization of their dream? The “spirits,” by whose illumination he says he had written his books, came again to his aid. They directed the formation of a “Protective Union.” A Central Bureau was established in New York City with Dr. Nichols as Secretary. All who wished to associate were enrolled as members and received a printed list of names and addresses. Thus a tempting opportunity was offered to affinity-hunters.

Early in 1856 Dr. Nichols began to see signs of a hurricane arising from the zephyr be had sown. Sensational charges were made in the newspapers and he found it necessary to issue a statement in his own defense. Hitherto no oath of secrecy had been exacted

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from members, but now a circular was sent out prescribing a Declaration of Principles and secrecy of the most guarded kind. The Central Bureau was removed to Cincinnati away from the hostile press of the east and nearer the main body of its constituents. Dr. Nichols began to hint in the Journal that sexual commerce should be limited to propagation. In May 1856 he launched a “Harmonic Home” called Memnonia at Yellow Springs, Ohio. But he gave notice in the Social Revolutionist, that Memnonia would be “provisionally and necessarily a despotism,” as wise and benevolent as circumstances would permit.

But the western disciples of Dr. Nichols, trained by him in Individual Sovereignty, could brook no control. They turned their backs on Memnonia, and found a gathering-point at Berlin Heights, a small town near Cleveland, Ohio, where Individual Sovereignty, Spiritualism and Free Love were smoldering and could easily be fanned into flame.

Memnonia was Dr. Nichols’ last attempt at social reconstruction. After its failure, which was complete, Dr. and Mrs. Nichols recanted their errors to Archbishop Purcelle of Cincinnati and were received into the Catholic Church.
With the exit of Dr. Nichols the “Nicolaitan doctrine,” as it was called by Noyes in allusion to the doctrine which according to Revelation 2: 15 Christ “hated,” entered upon its final phase. The Rising Star Association of Darke County, Ohio, believing that a large organization necessarily infringed the rights of the individual, had striven since August 1853 to realize Individual Sovereignty in a small group with the hope that later a federation of small groups could safely be effected. In the spring of 1857 this Association removed from Darke County to Berlin Heights, and its press, The Social Revolutionist, having taken over the subscription list of Nichols’ Monthly, became the organ of fierce Spiritualistic Free Lovers eager for advance on a large scale. A convention was held at Berlin Heights in the fall of 1856, another in the fall of 1857. The next year thirty householders pledged themselves to dispose of their property and remove to Berlin Heights as soon as practicable. But the public had become aroused. The Social Revolutionist for November 1857 was seized and burnt by a mob, and the number for January 1858 was the last. After this, though many Spiritualistic Free Lovers continued to live at Berlin Heights, the Free Love movement which had centered there fell into complete disorganization.

Reviewing the fruits of Berlin Heights Free Love a prominent convert asserted that among less than one hundred persons there

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were several suicides; that one man was in prison charged with murdering his wife’s sister, with whom he had been intimate; that three-quarters of the married couples had been separated and their families broken up; that many children born in Free Love had been forsaken; and that venereal disease had become alarmingly prevalent.

It isn’t as though John Humphrey Noyes didn’t have his own scandals to negotiate in the end, fleeing Oneida under the specter of statutory rape, men of the Oneida Community disgruntled at Noyes being the one who introduced females (some as young as 13) to the life of the Community in which it is said that every member was free to turn down sexual relations, but to do so could mean reprisal for selective love, which was seen even as a detrimental relationship even in the bonding of parents and children, for which reason children were removed from the care of their parents when weaned and placed in the Community Home. The abhorrence of selective love also prompted the burning of the childrens’ dolls.

• Travel, 1850-1860, Ohio, Erie County, Berlin Heights. At Berlin Heights sometime before and perhaps during 1859.

• Census: Possible, 1850, Illinois, Rock Island.

There is a James NOYS in the Rock Island Illinois census aged 23. Given as born Ohio however. But this James NOYS is in a household with a group of men of different professions. Nearby was a well-known Swedish utopian community, so I do wonder if this is James Allen Noyes. No way of knowing.

James NOYES is given as James NOYS in the 1860 census,which may also lend support to the Rock Island NOYS being James Allen NOYES.

24 October, R.I. Cty Lower Ward
Roll: M432_126 Page: 220 Image: 74
29 1177/1177 John LITTIG 50 Laborer $400 Germany
30 Mary 50 Germany
31 Mary 19 Germany
32 Nicholas 16 France
33 John 8 France
34 Amelia 4 Illinois
35 Andrew 2 Illinois
36 Morriah 1 Illinois
37 John LITTLE 84 Laborer Germany
38 Lewis RUBIDEAU 38 Laborer Canada
39 Mary 24 France
40 Lenora 5 Illinois
41 John L. 3 Illinois
42 Amanda 1 Illinois
1 Frederick RATCLIFF 29 m baker $300 England
2 A. D. GIBBONS 25 m wagonworks $300 Ohio
3 James NOYS 23 Laborer Ohio
4 William HOLLOWAY 33 Assesor Ohio
5 R. H? ANDREWS 24 Lawyer D.C.
6 William NEWBY 25 Sadler $1000 Ohio
7 A. H. MCCULLY 26 laborer Ireland

• Half-sibling’s Death: Mary R. dies as a young child, before the age of 3., Cir 1850.

• Sibling’s Death: Elizabeth dies at the age of 31., 22 Sep 1850.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, John W. is born., 31 Jan 1851.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Minerva is born., 19 Jun 1851.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Arilla W. is born., Cir 1851.

• 1851. In 1850 Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote, “The House of the Seven Gables”. Though it was Rev. Nicholas NOYES who had been purportedly cursed for his hand in the Salem witch trials, and who never had children, the forward of the book gives the curse falling upon John Hathorne, great-grandfather of Nathaniel Hawthorne, who was a magistrate at the Salem Witch Trials. It also gives the family having come to believe the curse fell not only upon Hathorne but the family in general, and was a matter of preoccupation for some. Seems the curse uttered against Noyes was absorbed by the Hathornes as belonging to them, and perhaps others involved absorbed it as well.

The House of the Seven Gables, antique as it now looks, was not the first habitation erected by civilized man on precisely the same spot of ground. Pyncheon Street formerly bore the humbler appellation of Maule’s Lane, from the name of the original occupant of the soil, before whose cottage-door it was a cow-path. A natural spring of soft and pleasant water-a rare treasure on the sea-girt peninsula where the Puritan settlement was made-had early induced Matthew Maule to build a hut, shaggy with thatch, at this point, although somewhat too remote from what was then the centre of the village. In the growth of the town, however, after some thirty or forty years, the site covered by this rude hovel had become exceedingly desirable in the eyes of a prominent and powerful personage, who asserted plausible claims to the proprietorship of this and a large adjacent tract of land, on the strength of a grant from the legislature. Colonel Pyncheon, the claimant, as we gather from whatever traits of him are preserved, was characterized by an iron energy of purpose. Matthew Maule, on the other hand, though an obscure man, was stubborn in the defence of what he considered his right; and, for several years, he succeeded in protecting the acre or two of earth which, with his own toil, he had hewn out of the primeval forest, to be his garden ground and homestead. No written record of this dispute is known to be in existence. Our acquaintance with the whole subject is derived chiefly from tradition. It would be bold, therefore, and possibly unjust, to venture a decisive opinion as to its merits; although it appears to have been at least a matter of doubt, whether Colonel Pyncheon’s claim were not unduly stretched, in order to make it cover the small metes and bounds of Matthew Maule. What greatly strengthens such a suspicion is the fact that this controversy between two ill-matched antagonists-at a period, moreover, laud it as we may, when personal influence had far more weight than now-remained for years undecided, and came to a close only with the death of the party occupying the disputed soil. The mode of his death, too, affects the mind differently, in our day, from what it did a century and a half ago. It was a death that blasted with strange horror the humble name of the dweller in the cottage, and made it seem almost a religious act to drive the plough over the little area of his habitation, and obliterate his place and memory from among men.

Old Matthew Maule, in a word, was executed for the crime of witchcraft. He was one of the martyrs to that terrible delusion, which should teach us, among its other morals, that the influential classes, and those who take upon themselves to be leaders of the people, are fully liable to all the passionate error that has ever characterized the maddest mob. Clergymen, judges, statesmen,–the wisest, calmest, holiest persons of their, day-stood in the inner circle round about the gallows, loudest to applaud the work of blood, latest to confess themselves miserably deceived. If any one part of their proceedings can be said to deserve less blame than another, it was the singular indiscrimination with which they persecuted, not merely the poor and aged, as in former judicial massacres, but people of all ranks; their own equals, brethren, and wives. Amid the disorder of such various ruin, it is not strange that a man of inconsiderable note, like Maule, should have trodden the martyr’s path to the hill of execution almost unremarked in the throng of his fellow sufferers. But, in after days, when the frenzy of that hideous epoch had subsided, it was remembered how loudly Colonel Pyncheon had joined in the general cry, to purge the land from witchcraft; nor did it fail to be whispered, that there was an invidious acrimony in the zeal with which he had sought the condemnation of Matthew Maule. It was well known that the victim had recognized the bitterness of personal enmity in his persecutor’s conduct towards him, and that he declared himself hunted to death for his spoil. At the moment of execution-with the halter about his neck, and while Colonel Pyncheon sat on horseback, grimly gazing at the scene-Maule had addressed him from the scaffold, and uttered a prophecy, of which history, as well as fireside tradition, has preserved the very words. “God,” said the dying man, pointing his finger, with a ghastly look, at the undismayed countenance of his enemy,–“God will give him blood to drink!” After the reputed wizard’s death, his humble homestead had fallen an easy spoil into Colonel Pyncheon’s grasp. When it was understood, however, that the Colonel intended to erect a family mansion-spacious, ponderously framed of oaken timber, and calculated to endure for many generations of his posterity-over the spot first covered by the log-built hut of Matthew Maule, there was much shaking of the head among the village gossips. Without absolutely expressing a doubt whether the stalwart Puritan had acted as a man of conscience and integrity throughout the proceedings which have been sketched, they, nevertheless, hinted that he was about to build his house over an unquiet grave. His home would include the home of the dead and buried wizard, and would thus afford the ghost of the latter a kind of privilege to haunt its new apartments, and the chambers into which future bridegrooms were to lead their brides, and where children of the Pyncheon blood were to be born. The terror and ugliness of Maule’s crime, and the wretchedness of his punishment, would darken the freshly plastered walls, and infect them early with the scent of an old and melancholy house. Why, then,–while so much of the soil around him was bestrewn with the virgin forest leaves,–why should Colonel Pyncheon prefer a site that had already been accurst?

So, Pyncheon dies apparently choking on his own blood. Some generations pass and the curse, which is one rather of posterity, weighs heavily.

Nathaniel Hawthorne builds his book upon that curse, and in this era gives the Free-Thinker the prescriptive saving grace. An artist, daguerreotypist, who has traveled a good deal, stayed for several months with a Fouererist community, has studied mesmerism, comes to the house and he and Phoebe (a Pyncheon) fall in love, etcetera, everyone is freed from the curse and of course the Artist is a descendant of Maule and acknowledges he is a sort of wizard himself. A little more complex than that but those are the fundamental wheels on which the car as novel is driven.

The daguerreotypist describes the family as carrying about a giant’s dead body, slaves to bygone times. “But we shall live to see the day, I trust…when no man shall build his house for posterity. Why should he? He might just as reasonably order a durable suit of clothes, –leather, or guttapercha, or whatever else lasts longest, –so that his great-grandchildren should have the benefit of them, and cut precisely the same figure in the world that he himself does. If each generation were allowed and expected to build its own houses, that single change, comparatively unimportant in itself, would imply almost every reform which society is now suffering for. I doubt whether even our public edifices–our capitols, state-houses, court-houses, city-hall, and churches,–ought to be built of such permanent materials as stone or brick. It were better that they should crumble to ruin once in twenty years, or thereabouts, as a hint to the people to examine into and reform the institutions which they symbolize.”

Interesting that Hawthorne used the Witch Trials and the curse as the basis for the novel. One hundred and sixty years after the Salem Witch Trials and the temper of that time and people, and the repercussions of the trials, was considered, by Hawthorne, to be significant, ongoing, intimate. An interesting commentary on the time.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Lunetta is born., 20 Apr 1854.

• Half-sibling’s Birth: By Susan Waters, Jean N. is born., Cir 1856.

• Marriage, 28 Jun 1859, Michigan, Kalamazoo County, Brady Village. Marred at 32 to Caroline ATWELL who was 23.

• Census, 1860, Michigan, Kalamazoo County, Wakeshma. Nearby is a George SLATER, 22, b. OH, who may be a relation of John SLATER who married James NOYES’ sister Melissa in 1857 and was living with her in Wisconsin.

1860 MICHIGAN KALAMAZOO CO. WAKESHMA CENSUS
pg. 43 (16 of 18)
Lyman FAIRCHILD and family
John WEBSTER and Lydia (in above FAIRCHILD household)
306/308 Charles S. BROWN 27 farmer $800 $335 b. NY
Phebe J. 22 B. MI
Willard 2
Luther 2/12
306/309 Thomas J. PIERCE 33
Nancy 22
307/310 George R. SLATER 22 day laborer b. OH $800 $320 b. OH
Sarah A. FAIRCHILD or FAIRCHILER 42
Mary A. SANDERSON 19 b. MI
John FAIRCHILD 26 b. OH
Julia 14 b. MI
Jane 12
Lucinda 9
Hannah M. 2
308/311 Samuel RETON 50 farmer 500 437 b. NJ
Sarah 42 b. PA
Alice 18 b. NJ
William 15 b. PA
Harriet COYSTER 12 b. IA
Daniel Reton 7 b. PA
Samuel R. 4 b. MI
Reynolds 1 b. MI
Anna MERRILL 20 b. IA
Charles 7/12 b. MI
309/312 Thomas RETON 52 1000 320 b. NY
Esther 38 b. CT
Elizabeth 10 b. NY
Eugene HOWARD 14
310/313 James A NOYS 33 farmer $1200 b. MI
Carrie A. 25 b. VT
311/314 Henry BILLINGS 28 day laborer $25 b. NY
Margaret 18 b. IA
Lewis 7/12 b. NY
312/315 Joseph MERRITT 57 $1000 $310 b. MA
Lury B. 51 b. VT
Nelson H. 27 b. NY
Hester A. 23
Almena A. (?) 14
Charles D. 3 b. MI
313/316 James PRESTON 33 $600 300 b. NY
Lucy E. 28 b. OH
Herbert S.2 b.MI<

• Occupation: Farmer, 1860.

• Property: $1200, 1860.

• Child’s Birth: Emma Viola is born., 15 Dec 1860.

• Child’s Birth: Cora Rachel is born., 19 Apr 1863.

• Father’s Death, 26 Aug 1864. Jame’s father dies when he is 37.

• Child’s Birth: Victor Hugo is born., 20 Aug 1865.

• Child’s Birth: Allen Marble is born., 30 Oct 1867.

James Allan Noyes and John Humphrey Noyes were only 4th cousins, but John Humphrey Noyes’ sister Elizabeth F. had moved from Putney to to Kalamazoo, Michigan with her husband Fletcher Ransom and his brother Roswell Ransom is known to have been a member of Alphadelphia.

• Child’s Birth: Paul is born., 24 Nov 1869.

• Census: Pg. 388, 1870, Illinois, Union County, Anna.

Page: 388
Roll: M593_284
Image: 33
Page No. 32 (given on census sheet)
Enumerated 18 of June
14 248/239 NOYES, J. Andrew 45 mw Farmer $3000 $250 b. MI
15 C. Ammanda 35 fw House Keeper b. VT
16 E. Violetta 8 fw b. MI attended school
17 C. Rebecca 7 fw b. MI attended school
18 V. Henry 4 mw b. IL
19 A. Monroe 3 mw b. IL
20 Patric 1/12 b. IL
21-26 249/240 Household of Davis CALVIN 47 and Mary V., he of IL and she of AR
27-31 250/241 Household of R. Henry CALVIN and Clarissa, he of VA, she of NC.
32 251/242 HARMAN Asa 40 mw Farmer $2000 $200 b. VT
33 Susan 39 fw House Keeper b. NY
34 O. Ephriam 15 mw b. MI
35 N. Edward 6 mw b. MI Can’t write
COMMENT: What happened here? Did the census taker just record initials and then reenter the information and make up names while doing so? The J. Andrew NOYES household is that of James Allen NOYES and the children should read Emma Viola, Cora Rachel, Victor Hugo, Allen Marble, and Paul. The children in the Asa HARMON household are Orrin Ellie and Edgar. The “Susan” as Asa’s wife is probably Lucy as in the 1880 census.

• Half-sibling’s Death: George W. Noyes died at 30., 3 Mar 1871.

• Child’s Birth: Ray is born., 4 Jan 1874. Ray will marry Elizabeth BREWER. DIRECT LINE

• Half-sibling’s Death: Minerva dies at the age of 23., 4 Sep 1874.

• Half-sibling’s Death: Lunetta dies., 25 Mar 1878.

• Census: Pg. 25B, 1880, Illinois, Union County, Anna.

Year: 1880; Census Place: Anna, Union, Illinois; Roll: T9_254; Family History Film: 1254254; Page: 25B; Enumeration District: 113; Image: 0207
Enumerated 36 and 28 of June by Joseph Levey
33 337/369 HARMON Asa wm 52 md Farmer b. VT parents b. VT
34 Lucy wf Wife 51 md Keeping House can’t write b. OH parents b. NY
35 Edgar wm Son 15 MI father b. VT mother b. OH
36 Almina sister 54 unable to read or write VT parents b. VT
37 Ida LEE wf19 Boarding sg b. IL parents b. IL
38 Charles LEE 16 wm Boarding sg Laborer IL parents b. IL
39 338/370 NOYES J. A. wm 53 md. Farmer b. MI father b. MA mother b. NY
40 Caroline wf 44 Keeing house b. VT parents b. MA
41 Cora wf 17 Daughter sg b. MI father b. MI mother b. VT
42 Victor wm 14 sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
43 Allen wm 12 sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
44 Paul wm 10 sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
45 Ray wm 6 sg sg Son b. IL father b. MI mother b. VT
46 338/371 HARMON Orin wm 25 Son-in-law md Farmer b. MI father b. VT mother b. (VT written over Ohio or vice versa)
47 E. Viola wf 19 Daughter md. Farmer b. MI father b. MI mother b. VT
48 Chloe DAVIS wf 70 wd keeping house unable to read or write b. NC father b. NC mother b. VA
COMMENT: Chloe DAVIS looks like she was inadvertantly placed in the Orin HARMON household, as 338/372 continues with daughters of Chloe’s. Viola and her husband Orin HARMON reside in the J. A. NOYES’ household. There don’t appear to be other Michigan families nearby.

• Occupation: Farming, 1880.

• October 26, 1880, plat of Liberal is made by George Walser.

• January 1, 1881, Oneida Perfectionists Community disbands.

• October 7, 1881, Noyes Deed, Missouri, Barton County, Liberal.

Though the family is not given as migrating until 1882, a land deed records James NOYES of Barton County Missouri, 7 October 1881. It may be that he went first to Missouri where Liberal was in the process of being founded, and brought his family down later. We have the record of Caroline’s trip which gives that migration as 9 August 1882.

1881deedfull

The reason for the move to Liberal was that it was to be a Free-Thinkers town. O. E. HARMON, son-in-law of James Allen NOYES, wrote a history of the town., The Story of Liberal, Missouri,which was published in 1925 by the Liberal News.

liberalplat

The text on the plat pretty much says it all:

Liberal has now such an impetus that it can smile at the combined powers of priest, preacher, church, ignorance and hell. It is the only town in the United States set apart for Liberalism alone, and the only town of its size in the WORLD without a priest, preacher, church, saloon, God or hell; and they are the happiest and purest people on earth. The only fit home for liberally disposed persons. Liberal is a good country, rich in all the needs of life usually found in good countires. Address,
G. M. WALSER
Liberal, Barton County, MO.

• November 7, 1881, Liberal is incorporated as a town.

• Migration, 9 Aug 1882, Missouri, Barton County. Departed Anna IL for Barton Co. MO on this day. The trip of about 300 miles took nearly three weeks. Caroline kept a diary for nine days.

• Accessory Document: Noyes Family Constitution, Cir 1883.

• Child’s Death: Victor Hugo dies of Yellow Fever., 23 Oct 1886.

• Child’s Death: Cora Rachel dies in childbirth., 15 Oct 1887.

• Half-sibling’s Death: Franklin NOYES dies at the age of 43., 28 Jul 1891.

• Wife’s Death: Caroline dies at 58. , 18 Apr 1894. Caroline and James had been married 34 years.

• Census: Pg. 20A, 1900, Missouri, Barton County, Central Township.

Sheet No. 3
Supervisor District 13
Enumeration District 18
5 June enumeration by David E. Harpole
(Ancestry.com page 5)
Preceding households appear to be John RHINE, Thomas WILLIAMS, James HANSHAW, John SMITH and Charles DURHAM.
20 48/49 HARMON O. E. Head wm Dec 1854 age 45 married 21 yrs. b. Michigan F-Vermont M-New York Farmer 0 can read and write, 0 months unemployed, F F 50
21 E. Viola Wife wf Dec 1860 39 md 21 yrs, 1 child 0 living, b-Michigan F-Michigan M-Vermont can read and write
22 Robert adopted son wm Oct 1887 12 sg. b-Missouri F-Penn M-Michigan Farmer 9 months unemployed, can read and write
23-29 49/50 Frank and Nancy STONE household Farmer
30 59/51 William H. GRIVET household Farmer
31-33 51/52 Newton WINNER household Farmer
34 52/53 NOYES Ray Head wm Jan 1875 25 married 6 years b. Illinois f-Michigan m-Vermont Farmer can read and write O F F 54
35 Bettie Wife wf July 1877 22, 2 children 2 living, b- Missouri parents-Illinois, can read and write
36 Pansy Daughter wf Dec. 1895 4 sg b. Missouri f-Illinois m-Missouri
37 Cora Daughter wf Sept 1896 3 sg b. Missouri f-Illinois m-Missouri
38 James A Father wm Dec 1824 75 Wd b. Michigan Parents-NY can read and write
39 53/54 JACKMAN Henry Feb 1849 51 married 21 years b. Penn parents-Penn
40 Mabel March 1863 37 5 children, 3 living b. Michigan F-Michigan M-Rhode Island
41 Hiram July 1881 18 b. Missouri
42 Amy May 1880 20 b. Missouri
43 Benton Oct 1891 9 b. Missouri
44 54/55 BECKMAN George April 1866 34 married 7 years b. New York F-Prussia M-Germany
45 Emma 1871 28 2 children 2 living b. Indiana parents-Indiana
46 Harold 1894 5 b. Missouri
47 Basil 1897 3 b. Missouri
48 55/56 NOYES Paul Head wm Nov 1869 30 married 9 years b. Illinois F-Michigan M-Vermont Farmer o months unemployed, can read and write, O F F 57
49 Edna Wife wf Dec 1872 27, md 9 years, 3 children, 3 living b. Missouri parents-Illinois Can read and write
50 Grace Daughter wf Mar 1892 8 b. Missouri f-Missouri m-Illinois
Pg. 21B
51 Ormil Daughter wf May 1893 7 sg wf b. Oklahoma Ter. f-IL m-IL did not attend school
52 Garrett Son wm Dec. 1896 3 b. Oklahoma Ter f-IL m-IL
Following households are STEVENSON, FOOTE Virginia, WILSON, JACKSON Louis, JACKMAN Allen, STRICKLAND Julia and son Lemuel, MOHLER James, JACKMAN A. M. , JONES William, Viola, Iva and Eva and Marcus, CHESTER Hiram and Permelia, BARNES E. J. and STACY William.and Permelia, BARNES E. J. and STACY William.